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Zhanga C.-R.,Michigan State University | Jayashree E.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Kumar P.S.,ICAR National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Nair M.G.,Michigan State University | Nair M.G.,King Saud University
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2015

Nutmeg, Myristica fragrans, is known for its culinary and medicinal values. The nutmeg pericarp, abundant during the production of the seed, is also used in food and beverage preparations. In this study, the pericarp of M. fragrans was evaluated for its bioactive components using in vitro antioxidant and antiinflammatory assays. The hexane, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 82.5, 70.1 and 73.2%, and cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 by 44, 44 and 42% and COX-2 by 47, 41 and 36%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. The bioassay-guided purifications of extracts yielded 20 compounds belonged to neolignans (0.13%), phenylpropanoids (0.28%), phenolic aldehyde (0.35%), triterpenoids (0.06%), triglycerides (0.20%), sugars (10.2%) and steroids (0.49%). Pure isolates 1-5 inhibited LPO by 70-99% and 3-12 inhibited COX-1 and-2 enzymes by 37-49%. This is the first report on the bioassay-guided characterization of constituents in nutmeg pericarp. Our results support the medicinal claims of nutmeg pericarp.

Farooq M.A.,Bielefeld University | Farooq M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Saqib Z.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Akhtar J.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 3 more authors.
Silicon | Year: 2015

The beneficial element silicon (Si) is known to enhance plant tolerance against various kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known about its protective role for plants facing multiple stresses such as salinity and boron (B) toxicity. Therefore, the current study was planned in pots to evaluate the beneficial role of exogenous applied Si (150 mg kg-1) nutrition against salinity stress (10 dS m−1), and B toxicity (2.5 mg kg−1) alone or in combinations. Results showed that both salinity and B toxicity reduced plant growth and biomass of rice, with maximum damage under their combined stress due to increased uptake of toxic ions such as sodium (Na+) and B. Contrarily, Si application helped the plants to overcome negative effects of these toxic ions by increasing silica and K+ uptake and decreasing Na+ and B entry in plants that ultimately lead to improvement in plant biomass. High silica uptake ability of rice significantly improved the efficiency of antioxidant mechanism, as indicated by reduced catalase (CAT) activity and improvement in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity by Si application under stress, resulting in reduced oxidative damage. From this study, we conclude that Si fertilization can enhance crop production in salt affected soils by helping plant defenses against salts as well as associated B toxicities; however, field trials should be carried out before setting any recommendations for farmers. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Srivastava A.K.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Pasala R.,ICAR National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Minhas P.S.,ICAR National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Suprasanna P.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center
Advances in Agronomy | Year: 2016

Increasing agricultural productivity and sustainability will have to be prioritized to enhance food production. The major challenge toward this emanates from multiple stress factors and unpredictable climatic conditions. Thus, it is critical to understand and characterize the plant responses to changing environmental conditions. Needless to say, plant breeding has contributed a great deal to crop improvement over the past decades and is still supplementing the biotechnological advancement to bring technologies for enhancing crop yield. In recent years, although several stress tolerant transgenic lines have been developed; however, their performance in farmer's field is still to be tested. In this regard, present review describes Low External Input and Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA) based agriculture wherein low concentration of plant bioregulators (PBRs) are applied externally at a suitable developmental stage to boost the plant signaling which finally leads to enhanced growth and crop yield. There is a wide range of chemical- and hormone-based PBRs used for different crops and here in, we have proposed a unified mechanism for their mode of action. This is based upon PBRs ability to fine tune plant redox homeostasis which regulate root growth for improving plant water/nutrient status, photosynthetic efficiency and source-sink homeostasis for enhanced crop yield and metabolism for overall improvement in plant growth. The knowledge gaps and quality control aspect have also been discussed to ensure the adoptability and applicability of PBRs on a wider scale. © 2015.

Choudhary R.L.,ICAR National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Wakchaure G.C.,ICAR National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Minhas P.S.,ICAR National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Singh A.K.,Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research
Sugar Tech | Year: 2016

The high load and tough nature of loose trash generated after sugarcane harvest hampers the fertiliser placement and other field operations; therefore, open burning is a common practice in ratoon sugarcane. In situ retention of sugarcane trash can play an important role in replenishing soil quality and reducing environmental pollution, but there is a lack of suitable machine for placement of fertilisers. To address this and other issues for low yields of ratoon sugarcane, a prototype of multi-purpose machine was developed for operations like stubble shaving, off-barring, root pruning and drilling of basal fertilisers, and evaluated with ten on-farm trials on black soils varying in texture (clay 27–44 % and fertility (Org-C 4.4–9.3 g kg−1). The improvement in cane yields averaged 16 and 11 % over the trash burning (farmer’s practice) and chopping followed by recommended practices of fertiliser application (0.45, 0.45 and 0.10 N as basal, at earthing-up and onset of monsoon rains, respectively) while the nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUE) improved by 9.9 %. Band placement of double the dose of N as basal rather than the recommended two splits as basal and at earthing-up further boosted the initial growth and improved the cane yields and NUE by 22 and 11 % over farmer’s practice. Therefore, the fine-tuning of this prototype should offer a practical and economic solution of trash burning problem in sugarcane cultivation. © 2016 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion

Kumar N.,ICAR National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Ambasankar K.,ICAR Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture | Krishnani K.K.,ICAR National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Kumar P.,ICAR Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture | And 3 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2016

We herein report the protective role of pyridoxine in enhancing thermal tolerance of Milkfish Chanos chanos reared under endosulfan-induced stress. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were prepared with graded levels of pyridoxine (0, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg). Two hundred and twenty five fishes were randomly distributed into four treatment groups in triplicate, reared under endosulfan-treated water, which were fed with pyridoxine supplemented diet, while the negative control group was reared without endosulfan-treatment and control fed. The concentration of endosulfan in treated water was maintained at a level of 1/40th of LC50 i.e. 0.52 μg/L. Dietary pyridoxine supplementation had significant (p < 0.01) effect on temperature tolerance viz. CTmax (Critical temperature maxima), LTmax (Lethal temperature maxima), CTmin (Critical temperature minima) and LTmin (Lethal temperature minima) of milkfish. The positive correlation was observed between CT max and LTmax (Y = -1.54 + 15.6x, R2, 0.943) as well as CTmin and LTmin (Y = -1.44 + 1.021x, R2, 0.941). At the end of the thermal tolerance study, antioxidative status and HSP 70 were significantly reduced in pyridoxine supplemented groups, whereas brain AChE was significantly (p < 0.01) elevated compared to positive and negative control. It is concluded that CTmax, LTmax, CTmin and LTmin, antioxidative status, neurotransmitter enzyme and HSP 70 strengthened the enhancement of thermal tolerance of Milkfish. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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