National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management

Navi Mumbai, India

National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management

Navi Mumbai, India
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Minhas P.S.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Obi Reddy G.P.,National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning
Agricultural Research | Year: 2017

Increase in agricultural productivity in India is likely to come primarily from sustained intensification, but the increases in the recent past have been accompanied by severe degradation of agroecosystems and the resultant edaphic constraints. The emerging nutrient deficiencies with mining (8–10 million tonnes of NPK annually) along with acidity (pH < 5.5 in 17.93 M ha), salinity (6.73 M ha) and soil contaminants are the most common chemical stresses. Among the physical stresses, severe soil erosivity (water 82.47 M ha and wind 12.40 M ha), shallow soils (26.4 M ha), soil hardening (21.4 M ha) and low water holding capacity (13.75 M ha) threaten the soil productivity. The soils are inherently low in low organic carbon, and climate change is further impacting the farming systems. Conservative estimates show that about two-third losses in agricultural production are caused by these edaphic factors. Therefore, to alleviate the adverse effects of multiple edaphic factors, a holistic approach to build up systems perspectives is urgently required. The new tools emerging especially in the areas of conservation agriculture, precision irrigation technologies, biotechnology and omic sciences etc., are opening up new opportunities for tackling these stresses. © 2017, NAAS (National Academy of Agricultural Sciences).

Bhattacharjee S.,Tripura University | Sarkar B.,National Institute of Abiotic stress management | Sharma A.R.,Hallym University | Gupta P.,Tripura University | And 4 more authors.
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2016

Biodegradable polymer based drug delivery has emerged as a promising and successful clinical tool for specific targeting and controlled drug release delivery system. Various other unique advantages associated with this delivery system include prolonged circulation, biocompatibility, degradation in nontoxic by-products etc. Till date, various biopharmaceutical agents have been successfully encapsulated within biodegradable polymers and used in clinics. However, before the clinical implementation of such nanocarriers different parameters have to be considered which influence the success of these nanocarriers such as drug release profile, size of nanocarrier, degradation mechanism, toxicity profile, type of polymer used, appropriate synthesis method, selection of mode of delivery etc. The following review focuses on such considerations to explore the area of designing and development of biodegradable polymeric nanosystems which when encapsulated with biopharmaceutical agents can be efficient for clinical application. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.

Krishnani K.K.,University of California at Riverside | Krishnani K.K.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Srinives S.,University of California at Riverside | Srinives S.,Mahidol University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

We report detoxification of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) using electrochemically synthesized polyaniline (PANI), polypyrrole (PPY), PANI nanowires (PANI-NW) and palladium-decorated PANI (PANI-Pd) thin films. Percent Cr(VI) reduction was found to be decreased with an increase in pH from 1.8 to 6.8 and with initial Cr(VI) concentration ranging from 2.5 to 10. mg/L. Efficacy of PANI increased at higher temp of 37 °C as compared to 30 °C. PANI-Pd was found to be most effective for all three initial Cr(VI) concentrations at pH 1.8. However, efficacy of PANI-Pd was significantly reduced at higher pHs of 5 and 6.8. Efficacy of PANI and PANI-NW was found to nearly the same. However, there was a significant reduction in effectiveness of PANI-NW at 10. mg/L of Cr(VI) at all the three pHs studied, which could be attributed to degradation of PANI-NW by higher initial Cr(VI) concentration. PPY and PANI-NW were found to be highly sensitive with respect to pH and Cr(VI) initial concentration. Chromium speciation on PANI film was carried out by total chromium analysis and XPS, which revealed Cr(III) formation and its subsequent adsorption on the polymer. PANI-Pd and PANI are recommended for future sensor applications for chromium detection at low pH. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Krishnani K.K.,University of California at Riverside | Krishnani K.K.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Chen W.,University of California at Riverside | Chen W.,University of Delaware | Mulchandani A.,University of California at Riverside
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2014

In the present study, elastin-like biopolymer (ELP) composed of a polyhistidine domain has been investigated as a silver binding agent for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, a model test strain for Gram-negative bacteria for antibacterial assays of nanoparticles, and Vibrio harveyi, an opportunistic pathogen which cause mass mortality in shrimp Penaeus monodon reared in coastal aquaculture. The concentration dependent antimicrobial activity of ELPH-Ag on E. coli and V. harveyi was examined by agar well diffusion method and further confirmed through growth curves using spectrophotometer assisted absorption observations. The increased concentrations of ELP-Ag effectively checked the bacterial growth and increased the diameter of inhibition zone. The results showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 37. μg/ml. This study has an application in formulating artificial protein based antibacterial in diverse fields of healthcare and management of disease in coastal aquaculture. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Uga Y.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Sugimoto K.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Ogawa S.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture | Ogawa S.,University of Valle | And 25 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013

The genetic improvement of drought resistance is essential for stable and adequate crop production in drought-prone areas. Here we demonstrate that alteration of root system architecture improves drought avoidance through the cloning and characterization of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1), a rice quantitative trait locus controlling root growth angle. DRO1 is negatively regulated by auxin and is involved in cell elongation in the root tip that causes asymmetric root growth and downward bending of the root in response to gravity. Higher expression of DRO1 increases the root growth angle, whereby roots grow in a more downward direction. Introducing DRO1 into a shallow-rooting rice cultivar by backcrossing enabled the resulting line to avoid drought by increasing deep rooting, which maintained high yield performance under drought conditions relative to the recipient cultivar. Our experiments suggest that control of root system architecture will contribute to drought avoidance in crops. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Bhushan B.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Pal A.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Kumar S.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Jain V.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

An extracellular xylanase from the culture supernatant of isolated soil- borne Aspergillus flavus MTCC 9390 grown on well optimized medium was purified using neutral salt fractionation and size exclusion column chromatography. The elution profile of the fractionated sample showed major xylanolytic protein that was further characterized. The activity of isolated enzyme was optimum at pH 5.0 and temperature 55 °C. The enzyme was stable at pH between 4.5 and 6.5 and temperatures between 45 and 75 °C. The enzyme showed a Km of 1.5 % for xylan with a Vmax of 200 UmL−1. The molecular mass of protein was found to be 35 kDa with cysteine residue at or near the active site of enzyme. After encapsulation in alginate beads, a change in kinetic and biochemical properties of xylanase was recorded. Better thermostability, wider pH optima and enhanced temperature optima were the key determinants of significant immobilization. The activity of free and bound enzyme having different specific activities, induced different clarification behavior of reconstituted or fresh pineapple juice at different expressed units. The retention of recovered enzyme after successive reaction cycles with xylan confirmed the effective immobilization. The bound enzyme with lower specific activity clarified juice faster than the free enzyme due to its operational stability and reusability. Samples of pineapple juice showed relatively less viscosity, suspended solids and more clarity with immobilized enzyme treatment. © 2013, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Choudhary V.K.,National Institute of Biotic Stress Management | Choudhary V.K.,ICAR Research Complex for North eastern Hills Region | Kumar P.S.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Kumar P.S.,ICAR Research Complex for North eastern Hills Region
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2014

An experiment was conducted at Basar, during 2008–11 on maize (Zea mays L.)–based cropping systems, to evaluate the production, root growth and weed dynamics with and without mulch. The productivity of sequential crops was 18–35% higher with mulch application than no mulch. However, the highest maize yield (4.25 t/ha) was obtained with maize–groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cropping system, followed by maize–pea (Pisum sativum L.; 4.24 t/ha). Similarly, yield of sequence crop was the highest with Frenchbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; 4.91 t/ha). Maize–equivalent yield and production efficiency were the highest with maize–Frenchbean system (10.1 t/ha and 42.4 kg/ha/day respectively). Land-use efficiency was found maximum with maize–Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj. & Cosson] system (71.9%) followed by maize–groundnut system. Root length, dry weight, volume number and density were recorded higher with groundnut (50.2 cm, 6.9 g/plant, 43.3 cc, 20.8 and 160.5 mg/ cc respectively) followed by Indian mustard and lowest with Frenchbean. However, specific root length was highest with pea (12.0 cc/g). Density, dry weight, index and persistency of weed were the highest with maize–fallow, followed by maize–Frenchbean system. However, weed-smothering efficiency was the maximum with maize–groundnut (59.4%), followed by maize–Indian mustard system (58.6%). Mulched plot registered the least said weed parameters with 65% weed-smothering efficiency. Soil-moisture content 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing (DAS) was higher with maize–groundnut system, followed by maize–Indian mustard system, and between the mulch, no mulched plot had considerably lower soil moisture than the mulched ones. © 2014, Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved.

Choudhary V.K.,Research Complex for NEH Region | Suresh Kumar P.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Bhagawati R.,Research Complex for NEH Region
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2013

Better root growth helps the plant for more uptakes of nutrient and water and positively influence the growth and yield attributes. Tillage alters the physicochemical and biological properties of soil and provides the congenial condition for better growth of maize. Four different till system, viz., conventional tillage (CT), zero tillage (ZT), raised bed (RB) and ridge and furrow (RF) were tried with two mulch viz. no mulch (NM) and paddy straw mulch (PSM at 4.0tha-1). RF recorded 18.0% higher seed yield followed by RB (14.5%) and CT (7.5%) over ZT. However, stover yield was 10.1, 8.6 and 5.1% respectively higher for RF, RB and CT over ZT. Mulches also favoured the soil against degradative force and conserved the soil moisture and maintained the soil temperature. Grain and stover yield were 11.1 and 6.5% respectively higher with PSM over NM. Root length, root dry weight and root volume were higher on RF followed by RB over ZT. However, root numbers was higher on ZT but comparable to CT. Root density did not differ with different types of tillage. Similarly, PSM recorded all the root attributes better than NM. Maximum water holding capacity (MWHC), water filled pore space (WFPS) and water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point were higher on RF followed by RB over ZT. Similarly, bulk density of soil at different soil depths were lower in RF followed by RB. Soil temperature was maintained on PSM and it was relatively hotter at early morning (8.00h) and relatively cooler during mid day (12.00h) and evening (16.00h) over NM. Soil organic carbon (SOC) changed with tillage and higher SOC was recorded on ZT at top 0-10 and 10-20cm soil depths but below 20cm there was no significant difference. Consequently, all the physical and chemical parameters were better with PSM over NM. The measured growth and yield attributes of maize depended on soil properties like bulk density, porosity, water potential, texture, aggregation and soil organic carbon. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Kumar N.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Ambasankar K.,ICAR central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture | Krishnani K.K.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Gupta S.K.,Indian Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2016

This study investigated 96 h median lethal concentration of endosulfan (99%, pure α: β ratio of 7:3) by conducting static non-renewable acute toxicity bio-assay in Chanos chanos juvenile with average weight (110±5.65 g). Further, the effect of different definitive doses (18.5, 19.5, 20.5, 21.5 and 22.5 μg/L) of endosulfan on metabolic, heamato-immunoligcal and histopathological response were probed. Anti-oxidative enzymes CAT, SOD and GST showed significant (p<0.01) increase of activity in the liver, gill and brain during exposure to endosulfan in a dose and time dependent manner. The brain AChE activity showed significant (p<0.01) inhibition from 18.5 to 22.5 μg/L exposure of endosulfan than the control group. LDH and MDH activity gradually increased with consequent increasing dose of endosulfan exposure in the liver, gill and brain. Similarly, ALT, AST and G6PDH activities in both liver and gill increased with consequent increases in the dose of endosulfan exposure. Immunological profile such as blood glucose and serum cortisol level significantly enhanced while respiratory burst activity declined with consequent increasing doses of endosulfan exposure. Histopathological alteration in the gill demonstrated curling of secondary lamellae, thickening of primary epithelium, shorting of secondary lamellae, epithelial hyperplasia, fusion of secondary lamellae, aneurism, and collapsed secondary lamellae due to dose dependent exposure of endosulfan. Liver histology illustrated cloudy swelling and necrosis with pyknotic nuclei to the moderate dose of endosulfan, whereas higher dose of endosulfan (21.5 μg/L) displayed severe necrosis of hepatic cells. Overall results clearly indicate that acute exposure of endosulfan led to pronounced deleterious alterations on biochemical, heamato-immunological, and histopathological responses of C. chanos juvenile. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Ratnakumar P.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Rajendrudu G.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Swamy P.M.,Sri Venkateswara University
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2013

Four peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars (cvs. TPT-1, TPT-4, JL-24 and TMV-2) were grown in open-top chambers at 350 and 600 μmol CO 2 /mol in soil amended with 0 (control), 50, 100 and 200 mmol solutions of NaCl. The net photosynthetic rate (P n), stomatal conductance (g s), transpiration (E) and dry biomass of leaf, stem and root were measured on 60 days after sowing. The plant growth and photosynthesis increased in both NaCl treated and control plants with elevated CO 2. The g s and E decreased under elevated CO 2 and the CO 2 effect was highly significant under salt stress mitigating the adverse effect on these components in all the four cultivars tested. A positive correlation was observed between P n and dry biomass under elevated CO 2 and salt stress. Enhanced CO 2 helps to increase growth and photosynthesis in peanut cultivars and it ameliorates the adverse effects induced by salt stress.

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