Tichopad A.,R.O.S.A. |
Roberts C.,Pfizer |
Gembula I.,R.O.S.A. |
Hajek P.,Pfizer |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
We estimate and describe the incidence rates, mortality, and cost of CAP (community-acquired pneumonia), in both inpatient and outpatient settings, in the Czech Republic (CZ), Slovakia (SK), Poland (PL), and Hungary (HU). A retrospective analysis was conducted on administrative data from the health ministry and insurance reimbursement claims with a primary diagnosis of pneumonia in 2009 to determine hospitalization rates, costs, and mortality in adults ≥50 years of age. Patient chart reviews were conducted to estimate the number of outpatient cases. Among all adults ≥50 years, the incidence of hospitalized CAP per 100,000 person years was: 456.6 (CZ), 504.6 (SK), 363.9 (PL), and 845.3 (HU). The average fatality rate for all adults ≥50 is 19.1%, and for each country; 21.7% (CZ), 20.9% (SK), 18.6% (PL), 17.8% (HU). Incidence, fatality, and likelihood of hospitalization increased with advancing age. Total healthcare costs of CAP in EUR was 12,579,543 (CZ); 9,160,774 (SK); 22,409,085 (PL); and 18,298,449 (HU); with hospitalization representing over 90% of the direct costs of treatment. The burden of CAP increases with advancing age in four CEE countries, with hospitalizations driving the costs of CAP upwards in the elderly population. Mortality rates are generally higher than reported in Western EU countries. © 2013 Tichopad et al.
Rybarova S.,University of P.J. Safarik |
Hodorova I.,University of P.J. Safarik |
Muri J.,National Institute for Tuberculosis |
Mihalik J.,University of P.J. Safarik |
And 4 more authors.
Tumori | Year: 2011
Objectives. p53 and XRCC1 protein expression were evaluated in 54 samples of nonsmall cell lung cancer. Patients andmethods. The immunohistochemical method was used for detection of the monitored proteins. Tissue samples were divided according to histopathological tumor type. The results were then compared with basic clinical and histopathological parameters (histopathological type, nuclear grade and TNM tumor stage IA, IB). Results. Statistically significant correlations were found between histopathological type and p53 expression, since P <0.05 (P = 0.015). Comparing p53 expression with grade resulted in a strong positive correlation (P <0.0396, R2 = 0.9223). The percentage of p53-positive tumors progressively increased from 0% in grade 1 to 75% in grade 4. No correlation was found between p53 expression and tumor stage. In case of XRCC1, the highest level was found in squamous cell lung carcinoma, where 71% of samples was positive. In case of large cell carcinoma samples, it was 67%, and in adenocarcinoma 52% of samples showed XRCC1 immunoreactivity. No statistically significant correlation was found between histopathological type, grade or early stage (IA, IB) of non-small cell lung cancer and expression of XRCC1 protein profile without neoadjuvant therapy. Conclusions. We found a statistically significant correlation between p53 expression and histopathological tumor type. It is possible that stabilized p53 protein plays an important role in the development of squamous and large cell carcinoma. Our findings also suggest that p53 expression cumulates with the dedifferentiation of cancer cells. It is possible that the expression of XRCC1 is not fixed and could be changed by the status of cancer cells and in relation to therapy. Relevant data about pre- versus post-chemotherapy and XRCC1 expression are needed to evaluate the influence of XRCC1 on drug resistance. Free full text available at www.tumorionline.it.