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Wegner M.,University of Bern | Helmich I.,University Institute of Health Sciences | Machado S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Machado S.,National Institute for Translational Medicine INCT TM | And 6 more authors.
CNS and Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets | Year: 2014

Anxiety and depression are the most frequently diagnosed psychological diseases showing a high co-morbidity. They have a severe impact on the lives of the persons concerned. Many meta-analytical studies suggested a positive anxiolytic and depression-reducing effect of exercise programs. The aim of the present article is to synthesize metaanalyses on the effects of exercise on anxiety and depression and to describe average effect sizes. For this purpose 37 meta-analyses were included reporting 50 effect sizes for anxiety scores of 42,264 participants and depression scores of 48,207 persons. The average documented anxiolytic effect of exercise in these reviews was small, 0.34. In contrast, the effect of exercise on depression was significantly higher and at a moderate level, 0.56. Data of randomized controlled trials suggest higher sizes for the effect of exercise on anxiety and depression leading to increases up to moderate and large effects, respectively. Additionally, exercise seems to be more beneficial for patients compared to participants within a non-clinical, normal range of psychological disease. Especially for the effect of exercise on anxiety, more high quality meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials are needed. Finally, possible neurobiological explanations are suggested for the positive effect of exercise on psychological disorders like anxiety and depression. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Schroder N.,University of Porto | Schroder N.,National Institute for Translational Medicine INCT TM | Figueiredo L.S.,University of Porto | De Lima M.N.M.,University of Porto
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2013

Over the last decades, studies from our laboratory and other groups using animal models have shown that iron overload, resulting in iron accumulation in the brain, produces significant cognitive deficits. Iron accumulation in the hippocampus and the basal ganglia has been related to impairments in spatial memory, aversive memory, and recognition memory in rodents. These results are corroborated by studies showing that the administration of iron chelators attenuates cognitive deficits in a variety of animal models of cognitive dysfunction, including aging and Alzheimer's disease models. Remarkably, recent human studies using magnetic resonance image techniques have also shown a consistent correlation between cognitive dysfunction and iron deposition, mostly in the hippocampus, cortical areas, and basal ganglia. These findings may have relevant implications in the light of the knowledge that iron accumulates in brain regions of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. A better understanding of the functional consequences of iron dysregulation in aging and neurological diseases may help to identify novel targets for treating memory problems that afflict a growing aging population. © 2013 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Wild L.B.,University of Porto | Wild L.B.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | De Lima D.B.,University of Porto | Balardin J.B.,University of Porto | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Neurology | Year: 2013

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dual-tasking on cognitive performance and gait parameters in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia. The impact of cognitive task complexity on cognition and walking was also examined. Eighteen patients with PD (ages 53-88, 10 women; Hoehn and Yahr stage I-II) and 18 older adults (ages 61-84; 10 women) completed two neuropsychological measures of executive function/attention (the Stroop Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Cognitive performance and gait parameters related to functional mobility of stride were measured under single (cognitive task only) and dual-task (cognitive task during walking) conditions with different levels of difficulty and different types of stimuli. In addition, dual-task cognitive costs were calculated. Although cognitive performance showed no significant difference between controls and PD patients during single or dual-tasking conditions, only the patients had a decrease in cognitive performance during walking. Gait parameters of patients differed significantly from controls at single and dual-task conditions, indicating that patients gave priority to gait while cognitive performance suffered. Dual-task cognitive costs of patients increased with task complexity, reaching significantly higher values then controls in the arithmetic task, which was correlated with scores on executive function/attention (Stroop Color-Word Page). Baseline motor functioning and task executive/attentional load affect the performance of cognitive tasks of PD patients while walking. These findings provide insight into the functional strategies used by PD patients in the initial phases of the disease to manage dual-task interference. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Martiny F.L.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | Veit T.D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Brenol C.V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Brenol J.C.T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2012

Objective. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease with unknown etiology but it is probably multifactorial. RA susceptibility is related to genetic, hormonal, immunologic, and environmental factors. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an important protein of the human innate immune system, encoded by the MBL2 gene. Polymorphisms in MBL2 were associated with several diseases, and may be an important factor in RA susceptibility. We analyzed 3 MBL2 gene polymorphisms in 322 Brazilian patients with RA and 345 ethnically matched healthy controls. Methods. MBL2 gene variants were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction sequencing. Results. Considering MBL2 B, C, and D alleles separately, a significant difference in both genotypic and allelic frequencies, particularly concerning frequency of the C allele, was observed comparing European-derived and African-derived individuals (European-derived patients 0.022 vs African-derived patients 0.205; European-derived controls 0.029 vs African-derived controls 0.144; both p < 0.001). We also analyzed MBL2 genotype in relation to extraarticular manifestations. Considering MBL2 variants together, we found an increased frequency of the OO genotype among patients with rheumatoid nodules (p = 0.031), although this association lost significance after Bonferroni correction. Conclusion. Our findings suggest an association of MBL2 genotypes with some clinical manifestations of RA, but more studies are needed to clarify the actual role of MBL in RA. The Journal of Rheumatology Copyright © 2012. All rights reserved. Source

Balardin J.B.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | Balardin J.B.,University of Porto | Vedana G.,University of Porto | Luz C.,University of Porto | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology | Year: 2011

Background: Alterations in cortisol secretion pattern seem to be involved in the associations between aging, depression, and cognitive decline. Objective: The aim of this study was to mainly assess cortisol circadian profile in older adults with subjective depressive symptoms. Methods: Salivary cortisol samples from healthy young (n = 22) and old adults (n = 22), and from older adults who self-reported depressive symptoms in Geriatric Depression Scale (n = 22) were collected at 7 AM, 4 PM, and 10 PM and were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Results: Older adults with depressive symptoms presented the characteristic cortisol circadian pattern, but they showed higher cortisol levels at 10 PM than healthy young and elderly controls. Conclusions: Our data suggest that mild depressive symptoms could be associated with a cortisol secretion pattern previously described as being predictive of cognitive decline. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

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