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Matumba L.,NRC Group | Monjerezi M.,University of Malawi | Kankwamba H.,University of Malawi | Njoroge S.M.C.,International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics ICRISAT | And 4 more authors.
Mycotoxin Research | Year: 2016

This study assessed knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the public in Malawi on issues related to molds in foodstuffs. A survey involving structured questionnaire was conducted with 805 respondents from seven districts of Malawi. Descriptive statistics, t tests, and analyses of variance were calculated. A majority of respondents recognized that molds were dangerous to human health (88 %); however, about 50 % of respondents were not informed that mold toxins are thermally stable and that they are not destroyable by normal cooking processes. About 33 % of the respondents asserted that they buy moldy maize, while approximately 20 % of respondents reported that they consume moldy fruits having discarded moldy fraction. There were significant differences in knowledge scores among different demographic groups. Females had significantly (p < 0.05) lower knowledge scores on issues related to molds in foods. Additionally, the respondent’s location had a significant effect. However, respondent’s education had subtle effect on knowledge score and the overall population’s knowledge score was generally low (3.55 ± 1.32 score out of 9). Results of the study underline the need to raise public’s knowledge about health risks associated with spoilage molds in food and prevention and management options. © 2015, Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Phiri J.S.,Institute for Eco Development Strategies and Toxicology IESTO | Katebe R.C.,National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research NISIR | Mzyece C.C.,National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research NISIR | Shaba P.,National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research NISIR | Halwindi H.,University of Zambia
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture | Year: 2014

Introduction: The Lusaka Water and Sewerage Company (LWSC) produces ~800–1,000 kg of treated sewage sludge per day at its Manchinchi wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The biosolids are used for land application purposes although the contaminant and pathogen composition and quality of the biosolids have been unknown until this study. Zambia does not have legal standards and guidelines for biosolids management or application. The Manchinchi plant in Lusaka suffers from constant breakdowns such that the effectiveness of the plant to produce quality grade biosolids for land application use is questionable. In peri-urban areas, the problem of poor sanitation is being addressed using different technologies including urine diversion ecosan toilets. The effectiveness of ecosan toilets to stabilize faecal sludge has not been assessed in Zambia. The purpose of this study was to stabilize and characterize the biosolids from Manchinchi plant and ecosan toilets. Stabilization was done by use of drying beds and irradiation. The parametres that were used for characterization were microbiological, parasitological and heavy metals. Results: Biosolids from the Manchinchi WWTP sun drying bed, ecosan toilets and from an experimental plastic-covered drying bed were found to contain different pathogenic microorganisms and contaminant levels. A radiation dose and time-related declining trend in pathogens loads in biosolids were observed. By the third week, no viable Ascaris eggs were detected. Based on controlled conditions, the biosolids quality was found to be within the internationally acceptable standards for restricted use. Conclusions: Both the untreated LWSC biosolids and ecosan sludge contained pathogen levels with the potential to cause environmental and public health hazards if used for agriculture purposes. Under plastic-covered drying beds, viable Ascaris eggs were not detected by the fourth week of treatment and the biosolids were stabilized to levels equivalent to Class C of the Australian standards for restricted land application. Covered drying beds can be considered as cost effective stabilization treatment technology for biosolids in developing countries. The technology has potential benefits for improving public health and reducing environmental pollution in Zambia, especially during the rainy season when biosolids are directly discharged into the environment. © 2014, The Author(s). Source

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