Lagoe R.J.,Hospital Executive Council Syracuse |
Westert G.P.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment Bilthoven
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2010
Background: Hospital inpatient complications are one of a number of adverse health care outcomes. Reducing complications has been identified as an approach to improving care and saving resources as part of the health care reform efforts in the United States. An objective of this study was to describe the Potentially Preventable Complications software developed as a tool for evaluating hospital inpatient outcomes. Additional objectives included demonstration of the use of this software to evaluate the connection between health care outcomes and expenses in United States administrative data at the state and local levels and the use of the software to plan and implement interventions to reduce hospital complications in one U.S. metropolitan area. Methods: The study described the Potentially Preventable Complications software as a tool for evaluating these inpatient hospital outcomes. Through administrative hospital charge data from California and Maryland and through cost data from three hospitals in Syracuse, New York, expenses for patients with and without complications were compared. These comparisons were based on patients in the same All Patients Refined Diagnosis Related Groups and severity of illness categories. This analysis included tests of statistical significance. In addition, the study included a planning process for use of the Potentially Preventable Complications software in three Syracuse hospitals to plan and implement reductions in hospital inpatient complications. The use of the PPC software in cost comparisons and reduction of complications included tests of statistical significance. Results: The study demonstrated that Potentially Preventable Complications were associated with significantly increased cost in administrative data from the United States in California and Maryland and in actual cost data from the hospitals of Syracuse, New York. The implementation of interventions in the Syracuse hospitals was associated with the reduction of complications for urinary tract infection, decubitus ulcer, and pulmonary embolism. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the Potentially Preventable Complications software could be used to evaluate hospital outcomes and related costs at the aggregate and diagnosis specific levels. It also indicated that the system could be used to plan and implement interventions to improve outcomes on an individual or multihospital basis. © 2010 Lagoe and Westert; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Yokel R.A.,University of Kentucky |
Hussain S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
Garantziotis S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
Demokritou P.,Environmental Health |
And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science: Nano | Year: 2014
This critical review evolved from a SNO Special Workshop on Nanoceria panel presentation addressing the toxicological risks of nanoceria: accumulation, target organs, and issues of clearance; how exposure dose/concentration, exposure route, and experimental preparation/model influence the different reported effects of nanoceria; and how can safer by design concepts be applied to nanoceria? It focuses on the most relevant routes of human nanoceria exposure and uptake, disposition, persistence, and resultant adverse effects. The pulmonary, oral, dermal, and topical ocular exposure routes are addressed as well as the intravenous route, as the latter provides a reference for the pharmacokinetic fate of nanoceria once introduced into blood. Nanoceria reaching the blood is primarily distributed to mononuclear phagocytic system organs. Available data suggest nanoceria's distribution is not greatly affected by dose, shape, or dosing schedule. Significant attention has been paid to the inhalation exposure route. Nanoceria distribution from the lung to the rest of the body is less than 1% of the deposited dose, and from the gastrointestinal tract even less. Intracellular nanoceria and organ burdens persist for at least months, suggesting very slow clearance rates. The acute toxicity of nanoceria is very low. However, large/accumulated doses produce granuloma in the lung and liver, and fibrosis in the lung. Toxicity, including genotoxicity, increases with exposure time; the effects disappear slowly, possibly due to nanoceria's biopersistence. Nanoceria may exert toxicity through oxidative stress. Adverse effects seen at sites distal to exposure may be due to nanoceria translocation or released biomolecules. An example is elevated oxidative stress indicators in the brain, in the absence of appreciable brain nanoceria. Nanoceria may change its nature in biological environments and cause changes in biological molecules. Increased toxicity has been related to greater surface Ce3+, which becomes more relevant as particle size decreases and the ratio of surface area to volume increases. Given its biopersistence and resulting increased toxicity with time, there is a risk that long-term exposure to low nanoceria levels may eventually lead to adverse health effects. This critical review provides recommendations for research to resolve some of the many unknowns of nanoceria's fate and adverse effects. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.
Roswall N.,Danish Cancer Society |
Angquist L.,Institute of Preventive Medicine |
Ahluwalia T.S.,Novo Nordisk AS |
Ahluwalia T.S.,Copenhagen University |
And 19 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014
Background: Several studies have shown that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet measured by using the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) is associated with lower obesity risk. The newly proposed Nordic Diet could hold similar beneficial effects. Because of the increasing focus on the interaction between diet and genetic predisposition to adiposity, studies should consider both diet and genetics.Objective: We investigated whether FTO rs9939609 and TCF7L2 rs7903146 modified the association between the MDS and Nordic diet score (NDS) and changes in weight (Δweight), waist circumference (ΔWC), and waist circumference adjusted for body mass index (BMI) (ΔWCBMI).Design: We conducted a case-cohort study with a median followup of 6.8 y that included 11,048 participants from 5 European countries; 5552 of these subjects were cases defined as individuals with the greatest degree of unexplained weight gain during followup. A randomly selected subcohort included 6548 participants, including 5496 noncases. Cases and noncases were compared in analyses by using logistic regression. Continuous traits (ie, Δweight, ΔWC, and ΔWCBMI) were analyzed by using linear regression models in the random subcohort. Interactions were tested by including interaction terms in models.Results: A higher MDS was significantly inversely associated with case status (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.00), ΔWC (β = -0.010 cm/ y; 95% CI: -0.020, -0.001 cm/y), and ΔWCBMI(β = -0.008; 95% CI:-0.015, -0.001) per 1-point increment but not Δweight (P = 0.53). The NDS was not significantly associated with any outcome. There was a borderline significant interaction between the MDS and TCF7L2 rs7903146 on weight gain (P = 0.05), which suggested a beneficial effect of the MDS only in subjects who carried 1 or 2 risk alleles. FTO did not modify observed associations.Conclusions: A high MDS is associated with a lower ΔWC and ΔWCBMI, regardless of FTO and TCF7L2 risk alleles. For Δweight, findings were less clear, but the effect may depend on the TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant. The NDS was not associated with anthropometric changes during follow-up. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.