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Apeldoorn, Netherlands

Schneeberger P.M.,Robert Bosch GmbH | Wintenberger C.,Grenoble University Hospital Center | van der Hoek W.,National Institute for Public Health | Stahl J.P.,Grenoble University Hospital Center
Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses | Year: 2014

Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii with a presentation ranging from asymptomatic seroconversion to possibly fatal chronic Q fever. The Netherlands faced an exceptionally large outbreak of Q fever from 2007 to 2010: 4026 human cases were notified, which makes it the largest Q fever outbreak ever reported. This outbreak, because of its size, allowed collecting a wide range of information on the natural history of Q fever, as well as on its transmission and clinical presentation. It also posed unprecedented public healthcare problems, especially for the concomitant management of the epizootic by veterinarian authorities and public health authorities, but also for the management of transmission risk related to blood donation. The need for cost efficient measures emerged rapidly because of the great number of infected individuals or at risk of infection, with a need for guidance on follow-up of acute Q fever patients, screening of pregnant women, or implementation of diagnostic algorithms. The acute outbreak was controlled by drastic veterinarian measures but chronic Q fever will remain a problem for the coming years. © 2014. Source

Operario D.,Brown University | Kuo C.,Brown University | Sosa-Rubi S.G.,National Institute for Public Health | Galarraga O.,Brown University
Health Psychology | Year: 2013

Objective: This article reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. Methods: We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories and behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Results: Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. Conclusions: CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. © 2013 American Psychological Association. Source

Cornel M.C.,VU University Amsterdam | Rigter T.,VU University Amsterdam | Weinreich S.S.,VU University Amsterdam | Burgard P.,University of Heidelberg | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2014

The European Union (EU) Council Recommendation on rare diseases urged the member states to implement national and EU collaborative actions to improve the health care of rare disease patients. Following this recommendation, the European Commission launched a tender on newborn screening (NBS) to report on current practices of laboratory testing, form a network of experts and provide guidance on how to further implement NBS screening in a responsible way, the latter of which was provided in an Expert Opinion document. After consultation of experts from EU member states, (potential) candidate member states and European Free Trade Association countries, in a consensus meeting in June 2011, 70 expert opinions were finalized. They included the need to develop case definitions for all disorders screened for to facilitate assessment and international outcome studies. Decision whether a screening program should be performed can be based on screening criteria updated from the traditional Wilson and Jungner (1968) criteria, relating to disease, treatment, test and cost. The interest of the child should be central in the assessment of pros and cons. A European NBS body should assess evidence on (new) screening candidate disorders. For rare conditions, best level evidence should be used. The health system should ensure treatment to cases diagnosed by screening, controlled and revised by follow-up outcome studies. Screening methodology should aim to avoid unintended findings, such as mild forms and carrier status information, as much as possible. Activities to improve NBS in Europe, such as training and scientific evaluation, could benefit from collaboration at EU level and beyond. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

van Passel M.W.J.,Wageningen University | van Passel M.W.J.,National Institute for Public Health | Nijveen H.,Wageningen University | Wahl L.M.,University of Western Ontario
Genetics | Year: 2014

A previous study of prokaryotic genomes identified large reservoirs of putative mobile promoters (PMPs), that is, homologous promoter sequences associated with nonhomologous coding sequences. Here we extend this data set to identify the full complement of mobile promoters in sequenced prokaryotic genomes. The expanded search identifies nearly 40,000 PMP sequences, 90% of which occur in noncoding regions of the genome. To gain further insight from this data set, we develop a birth-death- diversification model for mobile genetic elements subject to sequence diversification; applying the model to PMPs we are able to quantify the relative importance of duplication, loss, horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and diversification to the maintenance of the PMP reservoir. The model predicts low rates of HGT relative to the duplication and loss of PMP copies, rapid dynamics of PMP families, and a pool of PMPs that exist as a single copy in a genome at any given time, despite their mobility. We report evidence of these "singletons" at high frequencies in prokaryotic genomes. We also demonstrate that including selection, either for or against PMPs, was not necessary to describe the observed data. © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America. Source

Venhuis B.,National Institute for Public Health | Keizers P.,National Institute for Public Health | van Riel A.,University Utrecht | de Kaste D.,National Institute for Public Health
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2014

Food supplements are regularly found to contain pharmacologically active substances. Recently, the food supplement Dexaprine was removed from the Dutch market because it was associated with severe adverse events. Reports to the Dutch Poisons Information Center (DPIC) showed that ingestion of as little as half a tablet caused several cases of nausea, agitation, tachycardia, and palpitations and even one case of cardiac arrest. The remaining tablets of four patients were sent in by different healthcare professionals. Analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass-spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) confirmed the presence of synephrine, oxilofrine, deterenol, yohimbine, caffeine, and theophylline. Two more compounds were found which were tentatively identified as β-methyl-β-phenylethylamines. This incident is only the next in a series of similar incidents involving dietary supplements with (undeclared) active substances that are either unsafe or have no known safety profile. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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