National Institute for Physiological science NIPS

Okazaki, Japan

National Institute for Physiological science NIPS

Okazaki, Japan
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Ohkawa T.,National Institute for Physiological science NIPS | Ohkawa T.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies | Fukata Y.,National Institute for Physiological science NIPS | Fukata Y.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2013

More than 30 mutations in LGI1, a secreted neuronal protein, have been reported with autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (ADLTE). Although LGI1 haploinsufficiency is thought to cause ADLTE, the underlying molecular mechanism that results in abnormal brain excitability remains mysterious. Here, we focused on a mode of action of LGI1 autoantibodies associated with limbic encephalitis (LE), which is one of acquired epileptic disorders characterized by subacute onset of amnesia and seizures.Wecomprehensively screened human sera from patients with immune-mediated neurological disorders for LGI1 autoantibodies, which also uncovered novel autoantibodies against six cell surface antigens including DCC, DPP10, and ADAM23. Our developed ELISA arrays revealed a specific role for LGI1 antibodies in LE and concomitant involvement of multiple antibodies, including LGI1 antibodies in neuromyotonia, a peripheral nerve disorder. LGI1 antibodies associated with LE specifically inhibited the ligand-receptor interaction between LGI1 and ADAM22/23 by targeting the EPTP repeat domain of LGI1 and reversibly reduced synaptic AMPA receptor clusters in rat hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we found that disruption of LGI1-ADAM22 interaction by soluble extracellular domain ofADAM22was sufficient to reduce synapticAMPAreceptors in rat hippocampal neurons and that levels ofAMPAreceptor were greatly reduced in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the epileptic LGI1 knock-out mouse. Therefore, either genetic or acquired loss of the LGI1-ADAM22 interaction reduces theAMPAreceptor function, causing epileptic disorders. These results suggest that by finely regulating the synapticAMPAreceptors, the LGI1-ADAM22 interaction maintains physiological brain excitability throughout life. © 2013 the authors.

Yokoi N.,Okazaki | Yokoi N.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies | Fukata Y.,Okazaki | Fukata Y.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Postsynaptic density (PSD)-95, the most abundant postsynaptic scaffolding protein, plays a pivotal role in synapse development and function. Continuous palmitoylation cycles on PSD-95 are essential for its synaptic clustering and regulation ofAMPAreceptor function. However, molecular mechanisms for palmitate cycling on PSD-95 remain incompletely understood, as PSD-95 depalmitoylating enzymes remain unknown. Here, we isolated 38 mouse or rat serine hydrolases and found that a subset specifically depalmitoylated PSD-95 in heterologous cells. These enzymes showed distinct substrate specificity. α/β-Hydrolase domain-containing protein 17 members (ABHD17A, 17B, and 17C), showing the strongest depalmitoylating activity to PSD-95, showed different localization from other candidates in rat hippocampal neurons, and were distributed to recycling endosomes, the dendritic plasma membrane, and the synaptic fraction. Expression of ABHD17 in neurons selectively reduced PSD-95 palmitoylation and synaptic clustering of PSD-95 and AMPA receptors. Furthermore, taking advantage of the acyl-PEGyl exchange gel shift (APEGS) method, we quantitatively monitored the palmitoylation stoichiometry and the depalmitoylation kinetics of representative synaptic proteins, PSD-95, GluA1, GluN2A, mGluR5, Gαq, and HRas. Unexpectedly, palmitate on all of them did not turn over in neurons. Uniquely, most of the PSD-95 population underwent rapid palmitoylation cycles, and palmitate cycling on PSD-95 decelerated accompanied by its increased stoichiometry as synapses developed, probably contributing to postsynaptic receptor consolidation. Finally, inhibition of ABHD17 expression dramatically delayed the kinetics of PSD-95 depalmitoylation. This study suggests that local palmitoylation machinery composed of synaptic DHHC palmitoylating enzymes and ABHD17 finely controls the amount of synaptic PSD-95 and synaptic function. © 2016 Yokoi, Fukata et al.

Satake S.,National Institute for Physiological science NIPS | Satake S.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies | Song S.-Y.,Tokushima Bunri University | Konishi S.,Tokushima Bunri University | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Neurotransmitters diffuse out of the synaptic cleft and act on adjacent synapses to exert concerted control of the synaptic strength within neural pathways that converge on single target neurons. The excitatory transmitter released from climbing fibers (CFs), presumably glutamate, is shown to inhibit γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release at basket cell (BC)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in the rat cerebellar cortex through its extrasynaptic diffusion and activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors on BC axon terminals. This study aimed at examining how the CF transmitter-diffusion-mediated presynaptic inhibition is controlled by glutamate transporters. Pharmacological blockade of the PC-selective neuronal transporter EAAT4 markedly enhanced CF-induced inhibition of GABAergic transmission. Tetanic CF-stimulation elicited long-term potentiation of glutamate transporters in PCs, and thereby attenuated the CF-induced inhibition. Combined use of electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry revealed a significant inverse relationship between the level of EAAT4 expression and the inhibitory action of CF-stimulation on the GABA release at different cerebellar lobules - the CF-induced inhibition was profound in lobule III, where the EAAT4 expression level was low, whereas it was minimal in lobule X, where EAAT4 was abundant. The findings clearly demonstrate that the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT4 in PCs plays a critical role in the extrasynaptic diffusion of CF transmitter - it appears not only to retrogradely determine the degree of CF-mediated inhibition of GABAergic inputs to the PC by controlling the glutamate concentration for intersynaptic diffusion, but also regulate synaptic information processing in the cerebellar cortex depending on its differential regional distribution as well as use-dependent plasticity of uptake efficacy. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Koike T.,National Institute for Physiological science NIPS | Tanabe H.C.,National Institute for Physiological science NIPS | Tanabe H.C.,Nagoya University | Okazaki S.,National Institute for Physiological science NIPS | And 17 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2016

During a dyadic social interaction, two individuals can share visual attention through gaze, directed to each other (mutual gaze) or to a third person or an object (joint attention). Shared attention is fundamental to dyadic face-to-face interaction, but how attention is shared, retained, and neutrally represented in a pair-specific manner has not been well studied. Here, we conducted a two-day hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which pairs of participants performed a real-time mutual gaze task followed by a joint attention task on the first day, and mutual gaze tasks several days later. The joint attention task enhanced eye-blink synchronization, which is believed to be a behavioral index of shared attention. When the same participant pairs underwent mutual gaze without joint attention on the second day, enhanced eye-blink synchronization persisted, and this was positively correlated with inter-individual neural synchronization within the right inferior frontal gyrus. Neural synchronization was also positively correlated with enhanced eye-blink synchronization during the previous joint attention task session. Consistent with the Hebbian association hypothesis, the right inferior frontal gyrus had been activated both by initiating and responding to joint attention. These results indicate that shared attention is represented and retained by pair-specific neural synchronization that cannot be reduced to the individual level. © 2015 The Authors.

Umeda T.,National Institute for Physiological science NIPS | Isa T.,National Institute for Physiological science NIPS | Isa T.,Graduated University for Advanced Studies | Isa T.,Japan Science and Technology Agency
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2011

Following brain damage, especially in juvenile animals, large-scale reorganization is known to occur in the remaining brain structures to compensate for functional deficits. In rats with neonatal hemidecortication, corticospinal fibers originating from the undamaged side of the sensorimotor cortex issue collateral sprouts to the ipsilateral spinal gray matter that mediate cortical excitation to ipsilateral forelimb motoneurons and compensate for the deficit in forelimb movements. The present study was designed to investigate the origins of the ipsilateral corticospinal projection in neonatally hemidecorticated rats. Corticospinal neurons (CSNs) were labeled in adults by injecting retrograde neural tracers, cholera toxin subunit B with different fluorescent probes, into either side of the cervical spinal gray matter. In the undamaged cortex, double-labeled neurons were rarely found. CSNs with contralateral projections (contra-CSNs) and those with ipsilateral projections (ipsi-CSNs) were distributed both in the rostral forelimb motor area (RFA) and the caudal forelimb motor area (CFA). However, there was a difference in the distributions of the ipsi-CSNs between the two forelimb areas. Whereas the distribution of the ipsi-CSNs largely overlapped with that of the contra-CSNs in the RFA, the ipsi-CSNs tended to be segregated from the contra-CSNs in the CFA. The results suggested that the RFA and the CFA contribute to the compensatory process in different ways. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

PubMed | National Institute for Physiological science NIPS, Osaka City University, Keio University, Tokyo Gakugei University and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Neuropsychologia | Year: 2016

A hearers perception of an utterance as sarcastic depends on integration of the heard statement, the discourse context, and the prosody of the utterance, as well as evaluation of the incongruity among these aspects. The effect of prosody in sarcasm comprehension is evident in everyday conversation, but little is known about its underlying mechanism or neural substrates. To elucidate the neural underpinnings of sarcasm comprehension in the auditory modality, we conducted a functional MRI experiment with 21 adult participants. The participants were provided with a short vignette in which a child had done either a good or bad deed, about which a parent made a positive comment. The participants were required to judge the degree of the sarcasm in the parents positive comment (praise), which was accompanied by either positive or negative affective prosody. The behavioral data revealed that an incongruent combination of utterance and the context (i.e., the parents positive comment on a bad deed by the child) induced perception of sarcasm. There was a significant interaction between context and prosody: sarcasm perception was enhanced when positive prosody was used in the context of a bad deed or, vice versa, when negative prosody was used in the context of a good deed. The corresponding interaction effect was observed in the rostro-ventral portion of the left inferior frontal gyrus corresponding to Brodmanns Area (BA) 47. Negative prosody incongruent with a positive utterance (praise) activated the bilateral insula extending to the right inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and brainstem. Our findings provide evidence that the left inferior frontal gyrus, particularly BA 47, is involved in integration of discourse context and utterance with affective prosody in the comprehension of sarcasm.

Satake S.,National Institute for Physiological science NIPS | Satake S.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies | Inoue T.,National Institute for Physiological science NIPS | Inoue T.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2012

A simple form of presynaptic plasticity, paired-pulse facilitation (PPF), has been explained as a transient increase in the probability of vesicular release. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to record synaptic activity in rat cerebellar slices, we found different forms of presynaptically originated short-term plasticity during glutamatergic excitatory neurotransmission from granule cells (GCs) to molecular-layer interneurones (INs). Paired-pulse activation of GC axons at short intervals (30-100 ms) elicited not only a facilitation in the peak amplitude (PPFamp), but also a prolongation in the decay-time constant (PPPdecay) of the EPSCs recorded from INs. The results of pharmacological tests and kinetics analyses suggest that the mechanisms underlying the respective types of short-term plasticity were different. PPFamp was elicited by a transient increase in the number of released vesicles. On the other hand, PPPdecay was caused not only by delayed release as has been reported but also by extrasynaptic spillover of the GC transmitter and the subsequent intersynaptic pooling. Both PPFamp and PPPdecay closely rely on repetitive-activation-induced multivesicular release. Using a dynamic clamp technique, we further examined the physiological significance of different presynaptic plasticity, and found that PPFamp and PPPdecay can differentially encode and process neuronal information by influencing the total synaptic charge transferred to postsynaptic INs to reflect activation frequency of the presynaptic GCs. © 2012 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2012 The Physiological Society.

Inagaki-Ohara K.,University of Ryukyus | Inagaki-Ohara K.,National Institute for Physiological science NIPS | Inagaki-Ohara K.,Research Center for Hepatitis and Immunology | Mayuzumi H.,University of Ryukyus | And 7 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2014

Leptin acts on its receptor (ObR) in the hypothalamus to inhibit food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin and ObR are also expressed in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the physiological significance of leptin signaling in the gut remains uncertain. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a key negative feedback regulator of ObR-mediated signaling in the hypothalamus. We now show that gastrointestinal epithelial cell-specific SOCS3 conditional knockout (T3b-SOCS3 cKO) mice developed gastric tumors by enhancing leptin production and the ObRb/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. All T3b-SOCS3 cKO mice developed tumors in the stomach but not in the bowels by 2 months of age, even though the SOCS3 deletion occurred in both the epithelium of stomach and bowels. The tumors developed in the absence of the inflammatory response and all cKO mice died within 6 months. These tumors displayed pathology and molecular alterations, such as an increase in MUC2 (Mucin 2, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming) and TFF3 (trefoil factor 3), resembling human intestinal-type gastric tumors. Administration of antileptin antibody to T3b-SOCS3 cKO mice reduced hyperplasia of gastric mucosa, which is the step of the initiation of gastric tumor. These data suggest that SOCS3 is an antigastric tumor gene that suppresses leptin overexpression and ObRb/STAT3 hyperactivation, supporting the hypothesis that the leptin/ObRb/STAT3 axis accelerates tumorigenesis and that it may represent a new therapeutic target for the treatment of gastric cancer. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Umeda T.,National Institute for Physiological science NIPS | Umeda T.,Yokohama City University | Funakoshi K.,Yokohama City University
Neuroscience Research | Year: 2014

It is well recognized that a juvenile brain is more plastic than an adult brain and often undergoes better functional recovery following cortical injury. Infants treated with hemispherectomy to cure intractable epilepsy often exhibit restored normal motor function in the extremities contralateral to the lesion. Neuronal mechanisms of functional recovery after such a large cortical damage at a young age have been studied using animals with a similar lesion, hemidecortication. In such animals, descending pathways from the undamaged sensorimotor cortex to the ipsilateral forelimb motoneurons are reorganized as restoring normal motor function of the forelimb contralateral to the injury. Similar aberrant pathways from the motor cortex to the ipsilateral motoneurons are also generated following suppression of cortical activity in the other hemisphere, suggesting the development of contralateral connections in an activity-dependent manner in normal animals. Thus, formation of ipsilateral descending pathways following neonatal hemidecortication might be due to a loss of balance in cortical activity between the two hemispheres. Studies using animal models of neonatal cortical injury can reveal mechanisms of neural development and may help to establish therapeutic strategies to facilitate recovery from human juvenile cortical injury. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society.

PubMed | Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, University of Miyazaki, National Institute for Physiological science NIPS and Prefectural University of Hiroshima
Type: | Journal: Nutrition & metabolism | Year: 2016

Obesity increases the risk for malignancies in various tissues including the stomach. Atrophic gastritis with precancerous lesions is an obesity-associated disease; however, the mechanisms that underlie the development of obesity-associated atrophic gastritis are unknown. Leptin is a hormone derived from stomach as well as adipose tissue and gastric leptin is involved in the development of gastric cancer. The aim of the current study is to investigate the involvement of leptin receptor signaling in the development of atrophic gastritis during diet-induced obesity.Male C57BL/6, ob/ob and db/db mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a control diet (CD) from 1week to 5months. Pathological changes of the gastric mucosa and the expression of molecules associated with atrophic gastritis were evaluated in these mice.HFD feeding induced gastric mucosal hyperplasia with increased gastric leptin expression. Mucosal hyperplasia was accompanied by a higher frequency of Ki67-positive proliferating cells and atrophy of the gastric glands in the presence of inflammation, which increased following HFD feeding. Activation of ObR signaling-associated molecules such as ObR, STAT3, Akt, and ERK was detected in the gastric mucosa of mice fed the HFD for 1week. The morphological alterations associated with gastric mucosal atrophy and the expression of Muc2 and Cdx2 resemble those associated with human intestinal metaplasia. In contrast to wild-type mice, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and leptin receptor-mutated db/db mice did not show increased Cdx2 expression in response to HFD feeding.Together, these results suggest that activation of the leptin signaling pathway in the stomach is required to develop obesity-associated atrophic gastritis.

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