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Piernas C.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Wang D.,Nestlé | Du S.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Zhang B.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background/Objectives:Coincident with economic development, China has experienced a marked transition from undernutrition to overweight/obesity over the last few decades. We aimed to explore the burden of under- and overnutrition and nutrient adequacy among 2-12-year-old Chinese children.Subjects/Methods:We included anthropometry, dietary intake and biomarkers from 2-12-year-olds who participated in the 2009-2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (n=1191 in 2009; n=1648 in 2011). Dietary intakes were compared with the 2013 Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes.Results:In 2011, ∼19% of 2-6-year-old children were underweight, 4% were stunted, 10% were overweight and 12% were obese. Among 7-12-year-old children, stunting was almost 0%, whereas ∼21% were underweight, 13% were overweight and 6% were obese in 2011. Overweight and obesity were more prevalent among children from urban areas and higher income households. In particular, 2-6-year-old children from urban areas and higher income households experienced the highest increase in obesity from 2009 to 2011 (P<0.05). Children from urban areas and higher income households had overall higher intakes of total daily energy and most macro- and micronutrients (P<0.05). However, a significant proportion of children did not meet the recommendations for important micronutrients.Conclusions:Underweight and stunting currently coexist with overweight and obesity among Chinese children <12-year-old. We found critical disparities in the prevalence of under- and overweight/obesity, as well as in nutrient intakes and dietary adequacies between children from different incomes, revealing that the burden of childhood under- and overnutrition may constitute a public health concern in modern China. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Wu F.,University of Tasmania | Wu F.,Anhui Medical University | Laslett L.L.,University of Tasmania | Zhang Q.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Context: There is no consensus on the definition of Vitamin D deficiency for bone health based on serum 25-hydroxyVitamin D (25OHD) levels. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether thresholds exist for associations between 25OHD levels and bone outcomes and if low 25OHD levels have adverse effects on bone health. Design: This is a cross-sectional study. Participants: This study included secondary school students in Beijing, China, aged 12-15 years. Measures:Wemeasured serum 25OHD; bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, hip, and lumbar spine (LS); serum PTH; bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP); and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b) in 222 healthy adolescents (111 girls, 111 boys). Results: The prevalence of low 25OHD was 61% (<30 nmol/liter) and 97% (<50 nmol/liter) (mean 25OHD, 30 nmol/liter). Dietary calcium intake was low (294 and 307 mg/d for boys and girls, respectively). In girls, break-points for 25OHD (nmol/liter) were: total body BMD 20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 14-27), hip BMD 25 (17-34), LS BMD 22 (14-30), TRAP5b 37 (22-52), and PTH 31 (23-38). In boys, break-points were: total body BMD 39 (24-55), TRAP5b 33 (20-45), and PTH 35 (27-43); no break-points were identified for hip and LS BMD. No break-points were identified forBAPin either gender.Belowthese break-points, higher25OHDis associated with increased total body BMD, reduced PTH, and TRAP5b, whereas above these break-points, no such relationship exists. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is common in healthy Chinese adolescents. Attaining serum 25OHD levels of more than 20-37 nmol/liter in girls and 33-39 nmol/liter in boys had positive influences on BMD and bone remodelling markers. However, estimates may be affected by low calcium intake and low serum 25OHD levels, with 97% of adolescents having levels below 50 nmol/liter. Copyright © 2015 by the Endocrine Society.

Zhang S.-Q.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2015

Icaritin (ICT), a bioactive metabolite of prenylflavonoids from genus Epimedium, has displayed potential benefits for the treatment of osteoporosis, prostate cancer, liver cancer, renal cancer and breast cancer. To investigate the quantity of ICT in bones in vivo, a simple and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed. After a rapid one-step liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate with recovery more than 87.2% at four levels (0.1, 0.2, 8 and 15ng/mL), ICT and internal standard coumestrol were analyzed on a C18 column using a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water containing ammonium formate and formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3mL/min. Quantification was performed using selected reaction monitoring mode to monitor precursor-product ion transitions of m/z 367.1→297.1 for ICT and of 267.0→211.1 for coumestrol in the negative ionization mode. A calibration curve with good linearity (r>0.99) within the concentration range of 0.1-20ng/mL for ICT was obtained with the lower limit of quantification of 0.1ng/mL. Matrix effect did not interfere with ICT analysis and ICT was stable under three freeze-thaw cycles, short-term temperature, post-preparative and long-term temperature conditions. The method was successfully applied to a dynamic distribution of ICT in mouse bone after a single intraperitoneal administration to ICT to mice. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Icaritin (ICT), a major component in herb Epimedium brevicornum Maxim., shows beneficial effects for the treatment of osteoporosis and various cancers, and is predominantly metabolized to glucuronidated icaritin (GICT). Although clinical trials of ICT have exhibited good safety and tolerance, the dynamic bioditributions of ICT and GICT have not been reported. In the present study, the chemical structure of GICT was firstly reported, and a reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (UHPLC-MS/MS) was firstly established for the simultaneous quantifications of ICT and GICT in rat tissues. The dynamic distribution of ICT and GICT in rat tissues and their pharmacokinetic parameters have been reported for the first time. ICT, GICT and the internal standard coumestrol were separated on a C18 column with a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and water containing ammonium formate and formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min-1. The analytes were quantified by a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in the negative ionization mode. The lower limit of quantification values for ICT and GICT were 0.2 and 2 ng mL-1, respectively. Good selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and recovery were achieved, and no significant matrix effect was observed. The UHPLC-MS/MS was firstly applied to a dynamic biodistribution study of ICT and GICT in rats, following an intraperitoneal administration of ICT at a dose of 10 mg kg-1. 2016. © The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry.

Ding G.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health | Gao J.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health
Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

There are two points in the development of nutrition, nutrition research and nutrition improvement. We have a long history in nutrition research. This paper reviewed the development process of nutrition research in China, from the preliminary ancient understandingto the establishment of the nutrition work now. The nutrition research is developed for the nutrition improvement of human being, so the nutritional status of Chinese residents in recent two decades was summarized, and the opportunities and challenges of the nutrition work in China were proposed in this paper. © 2016, Editorial Office of Journal of CIFST. All right reserved.

Chen X.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVE:: To understand the association of domain-specific physical activity (PA) with leisure-time sedentary behavior (LTSB) among Chinese professionals. METHODS:: Totally, 3326 workers aged 35 to 64 years old from Beijing city and Zhejiang province were asked information on domain-specific PA with a revised Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). The association of domain-specific PA with LTSB-lifestyle (≥4?hours/day spent on LTSB) was examined with a binary logistic regression model. RESULTS:: Compared with sedentary occupational activity (OA), light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity OA were respectively associated with 55.3% (ORs, 0.447; 95%CI, 0.378 to 0.529), 63.5% (ORs, 0.365; 95%CI, 0.285 to 0.468), and 77.1% (ORs, 0.229; 95%CI, 0.126 to 0.417) less the odds of having LTSB-lifestyle. Those performing domestic activity (DA) are greater than and equal to 19.6?MET-hours/week had 30.1% (ORs, 0.699; 95%CI, 0.576 to 0.848) less the odds. CONCLUSIONS:: Both non-sedentary occupations and DA were negatively associated with LTSB-lifestyle in these professionals. Copyright © 2016 by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Yang Z.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health | Duan Y.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health | Ma G.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health | Yang X.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health | Yin S.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health
BMJ Open | Year: 2015

Objectives: To compare the difference between the China growth reference and the WHO growth standards in assessing malnutrition of children under 5 years. Settings: The households selected from 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in mainland China (except Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao). Participants: Households were selected by using a stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling. Children under 5 years of age in the selected households were recruited (n=15 886). Primary and secondary outcome measures: Underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity. Results: According to the China growth reference, the prevalence of underweight (8.7% vs 4.8%), stunting (17.2% vs 16.1%) and wasting (4.4% vs 3%) was significantly higher than that based on the WHO growth standards, respectively ( p<0.001); the prevalence of overweight was lower than that based on the WHO growth standards (9.4% vs 10.2%, p<0.001). In most cases, the prevalence of undernutrition assessed by using the China growth reference was significantly higher. However, the prevalence of overweight was significantly lower by using China charts for boys aged 3-4, 6, 8, 10, 12-18 and 24 months. Conclusions: The WHO growth standards could be more conservative in undernutrition estimation and more applicable for international comparison for Chinese children. Future researches are warranted for using the WHO growth standards within those countries with local growth charts when there are distinct differences between the two.

Attard S.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Herring A.H.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Zhang B.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health | Du S.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2015

Objective: Little is known about whether large-scale environmental changes, such as those seen with urbanization, are differentially associated with SBP versus DBP, and whether those changes vary by birth cohort. Methods: We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a population-based cohort study of Chinese adults (n=18 754 aged 18-70 years), seen a maximum of seven times from 1991 to 2009. We used hierarchical multivariable linear models to simultaneously estimate SBP and DBP as correlated outcomes over time, accounting for their physiologic, time-varying correlation. Main exposure variables were urbanicity, age, and birth cohort. Over 18 years of modernization, median SBP and DBP increased by 10 and 7 mmHg, respectively. Results: Our hierarchical model results suggest greater temporal increases in SBP and particularly DBP at lower versus higher urbanicity. At the same chronological age, for a 10-year difference in birth cohort (i.e. born in 1980s versus 1970s), the adjusted mean DBP was approximately 3mmHg higher for the later birth cohort (P〈0.001). Pulse pressure (calculated as model-predicted SBP minus DBP) was also higher at low versus high urbanicity. Conclusions: These results suggest increased susceptibility of DBP (and thus peripheral vascular resistance) to environmental change, particularly in younger Chinese adults. Because DBP more strongly predicts cardiovascular disease risk in younger adulthood, hypertension-related health burden in China may increase over time. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

PubMed | National Institute for Nutrition and Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2017

Breastfeeding has been existing from the beginning of human beings. The focus has usually been on breast milk and breastfed infants. However, there have been a few studies on nutrition and health status of lactating women worldwide. Many of these studies suggested that the nutrition and health status of the women not only can affect milk volume and nutrient contents, but also may have short- and long-lasting effects on their health status. Therefore, more research should focus on breastfeeding and the improvement of nutrition and the health status of lactating women.

PubMed | National Institute for Nutrition and Health
Type: | Journal: European journal of clinical nutrition | Year: 2017

Present study aims to longitudinally explore independent association of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with body weight.This study included 15050 adults who have complete demographic and dietary data, leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and sedentary behavior evaluations, anthropometric measurements from longitudinal data of China Health and Nutrition Survey 2004-2011. Three-level mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models were performed for association analysis.Overweight and obesity prevalence in men and women progressively increased from 2004 to 2011. MET-h/week from LTPA declined, whereas time (h/day) spent in sedentary behaviors increased in men and women over 7 years. After adjustment for confounders, LTPA (MET-h/week) was linked with weight gain for moderate (=0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.60, P<0.01) and low (=0.52, 95% CI: 0.23-0.81, P<0.01) versus high LTPA in men; weight was increased by 0.7kg (95% CI: 0.44-0.93, P<0.001) and 0.4kg (95% CI: 0.12-0.68, P<0.01) among men and women without LTPA, respectively, compared with those with high LTPA. Sedentary behavior was associated with weight gain in men (=0.45, 95% CI: 0.14-0.76, P<0.01) and in women (=0.29, 95% CI: 0.11-0.49, P<0.05) for high versus low level. Moreover, overweight and obesity risk in men with low LTPA or without LTPA was 1.88 (95% CI: 1.15-2.51, P<0.05) and 2.01 (95% CI: 1.41-3.03, P<0.001) times higher than those with high LTPA, respectively. Odds of overweight and obesity were increased to 1.63 (95% CI: 1.29-2.21, P<0.01) times in women with low LTPA and 1.69 (95% CI: 1.37-2.27, P<0.001) times in women without LTPA compared with those with high LTPA. High level sedentary behavior was associated with 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.04-1.35, P<0.05) greater odds of overweight and obesity against low level in men.LTPA and sedentary behaviors are independently and longitudinally associated with overweight and obesity, especially in men.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 11 January 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.262.

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