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De Lorenzo A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | De Lorenzo A.,National Institute for Mediterranean Diet and Nutrigenomic | Nardi A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Iacopino L.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation | Year: 2014

Background: Obesity represents a global public health problem due to its association with cardiovascular diseases and reduced lifespan. The most widely used classification of obesity is expressed as Body Mass Index (BMI); however, this formula is an imprecise adiposity measurement that ignores several important factors involved. Body Adiposity Index (BAI) was more recently proposed as an indirect evaluation of percentage body fat (PBF). PBF is a direct measure of person's relative body fat and a better predictor of obesity-related risk diseases than BMI and BAI. Since obesity and consequent diseases are considered epidemic, new accurate formulas for epidemiological studies are of interest to the scientific community. Because direct measurement of body composition could be quite expensive, the aims of our work were to analyse the distributions of PBF by Dual X-ray absorptiometry, and the creation of new predictive equation using only anthropometric measures that could be helpful to clinicians to assess easily body fat of female patients. Methods/results: A sample of 1,031 Caucasian Italian women was recruited and BMI, BAI and PBF were evaluated. With the aim of developing a predictive model of PBF a multivariate regression model was fitted to observed data. Conclusions: The definition of universally recognized PBF by gender and age could have public health implications. In this study, we developed a new predictive PBF equation that does not require the use of medical instruments or skilled measurement techniques and that may be easily applicable to Italian women. © 2014 Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE). Source

Di Renzo L.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Sarlo F.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Petramala L.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Iacopino L.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 4 more authors.
Disease Markers | Year: 2013

Background and Aim. Normal weight obese (NWO) syndrome is characterized by normal body mass index (BMI), but high amount of fat mass and reduced lean mass. We evaluated allelic frequency of the G/A -308 TNF-α polymorphism and prevalence of sarcopenia in NWO. Methods. We enrolled 120 Italian healthy women, distinguished into 3 groups: normal weight (NW); NWO, and preobese-obese (PreOB/OB) and evaluated anthropometric parameters, body composition by dual X-ray absorptiometry, blood tests, and genotyping of G/A -308 TNF-α polymorphism. Results. We found a positive association between sarcopenic obesity and -308 TNF-α polymorphism. All obese women were sarcopenic and were no carrier of mutation (G/G). Among all G/G, NWO showed significant differences in lean mass and total body lean mass (TBLean) with respect to NW and PreOB/OB (P < 0.001). Regarding appendicular skeletal muscle mass index values, 4.21% of NW were sarcopenic (50% G/G and 50% G/A); the same percentage was observed in NWO subjects (100% G/G). Moreover, 2.10% of PreOB/OB were sarcopenic and all were G/G. Conclusion. Our study suggests that TNF-α polymorphism contributes to sarcopenic obesity susceptibility, in association with body composition. This is the first study that shows the importance of TNF-α polymorphism to determine TBLean variation in NWO syndrome. © 2013 L. Di Renzo et al. Source

De Lorenzo A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | De Lorenzo A.,National Institute for Mediterranean Diet and Nutrigenomic | Noce A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Bigioni M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 6 more authors.
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2010

Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the effects of Italian Mediterranean Diet (IMD), consisting of organic versus conventional foods, on body composition, and biochemical parameters in a healthy individuals and in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients, in order to decrease cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factor and the progression of renal diseases. Design: After providing a written fully informed consent to the study, 150 Caucasian Italian men were recruited: 100 healthy male individuals (mean age 44,66±13,98 years; range 30-65 years) and 50 male CKD patients (mean age 46,25±5,97 years; range 42-54 years). These patients were affected by stage 2 and 3 of Chronic Renal Failure according to the K-DOQI 2003. Usual dietary intake and physical activity, during the previous 12 months were estimated by a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The following were measured at baseline and after consumption of conventional/organic 14 days IMD: Body mass index (BMI), Body composition, by Dual-X absorptiometry (DXA) scanner, total plasma homocysteine (tHcy), serum phosphorus, glycemia concentrations, lipid profile, and microalbuminuria. Results: A significant reduction of total homocysteine (tHcy) and phosphorus blood values were observed in the studied subjects. Body composition analysis by DXA highlighted high significant differences between conventional (T0) and organic diet (T 1) for fat mass parameter, expressed as kilograms and as percentage (p<0.001). Improvement of lean body mass was observed in CDK patients (p=0.004). Conclusions: Our study clearly demonstrates that the Italian Mediterranean Organic Diet (IMOD), according to the "Nicotera diet", was able to reduce tHcy, phosphorus, microalbuminuria levels and CVD risk in healthy individuals and in CDK patients. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

Di Renzo L.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Marsella L.T.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Sarlo F.,University of Naples Federico II | Soldati L.,University of Milan | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Translational Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms were found associated with body mass index (BMI)-defined obesity and lean mass. The aim of our study was to examine the role of the C677T MTHFR gene polymorphism in the response to diet in the management of metabolic syndrome. We investigated the body composition and metabolic factor changes after an hysocaloric balanced diet (HBD), in Italian obese women affected by metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods: Forty four obese women affected by MS were eligible for the study. A HBD for 12 weeks was assigned. Study participation included a complete screening for dietary habits, anthropometry, body composition, blood biochemical markers and C677T MTHFR polymorphism genotyping. The study has been registrated by ClinicalTrials. gov Id: NCT01890070. Results: The highest number of responders to HBD nutritional intervention were T(-) carriers (p ≤ 0.05). In the 81% of the total population a loss of Total Body Lean was observed. A significative loss (p ≤ 0.05) of Total Body Lean was observed in the 47% of T(-) carriers and in the 53% of T(+) carriers. Diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and waist circumference were reduced (p ≤ 0.05). The prevalence of MS parameters decreased by 84% for systolic and diastolic blood pressure; 79,5% for HDL cholesterol, 82% for fasting glucose and 77% for triglycerides. Conclusions: MTHFR genetic variations analysis would be an innovative tool for the nutritional assessment. Our data provide the basis for personalized dietary recommendations based on the individual's genetic makeup and nutritional status. Trial registration: The study has been registrated by ClinicalTrials.gov Id: NCT01890070. © 2014 Di Renzo et al. Source

Di Renzo L.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Di Renzo L.,National Institute for Mediterranean Diet and Nutrigenomic | Galvano F.,University of Catania | Orlandi C.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 6 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2010

The normal-weight obese (NWO) syndrome was identified in women whose body weight (BW) and BMI are normal but whose fat mass (FM) is 30%. In these subjects, an early inflammatory status has been demonstrated. The aim was to verify whether oxidative stress occurs in NWO. Sixty age-matched white Italian women were studied and subdivided as follows: 20 normal-weight individuals (NW) (BMI 25kg/m2; FM% 30%); 20 NWO (BMI <25kg/m2; FM% 30%); 20 preobese-obese (OB) (BMI <25kg/m 2; FM% 30%). Anthropometric, body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) variables, plasma levels of some cytokines, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NO 2 /NO 3 ), antioxidant nonproteic capacity (ANPC) were measured and compared between groups. Glucose and lipid metabolism parameters were assessed. GSH and NO2 /NO3- levels resulted lower in OB and NWO compared to NW (P 0.01). LOOH levels resulted higher in OB and NWO (P< 0.01). ANPC in NWO was lower than NW but higher with respect to OB (P< 0.01). Correlation analysis revealed strong associations between GSH levels and BW, BMI, FM% (R = 0.45, at least P 0.05); waist circumference (W) (R = 0.33, P 0.05); FFM% (R = 0.45, P< 0.01); IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-15 (R = 0.39, 0.33, 0.36 0.34, respectively, P 0.05); triglycerides (R = 0.416, P 0.05). LOOH levels were negatively related to FFM% (R = 0.413, P 0.05) and positively to FM%, IL-15, TNF-α, insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides (R = 0.408, R = 0.502, R = 0.341, R = 0.412, R = 0.4036, R = 0.405, R = 0.405, respectively, P <0.05). The study clearly indicates that NWO, besides being in early inflammatory status, are contextually exposed to an oxidative stress related to metabolic abnormalities occurring in obesity. © 2010 The Obesity Society. Source

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