National Institute for Longevity science NILS LSA

Ōbu, Japan

National Institute for Longevity science NILS LSA

Ōbu, Japan
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Satake S.,Center for Gerontology and Social Science | Shimokata H.,National Institute for Longevity Science NILS LSA | Shimokata H.,Nagoya University of Arts and Sciences | Senda K.,Innovation Center for Clinical Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association | Year: 2017

Objectives: To validate the ability of the total Kihon checklist (t-KCL) score to predict the incidence of dependency or death within 3 years in a community-dwelling older population. Design: Population-based longitudinal observational study. Setting: Town of Higashi-ura, Japan. Participants: A total of 5542 independent seniors who were residents in the town of Higashi-ura. Measurements: The KCL questionnaire was sent to independent older residents. Based on our previous report, those with a t-KCL score of 0-3 were classified as robust, 4-7 as pre-frail, and 8 + as frail. The incidence of dependency or death was observed over 3 years. Dependency was defined as a new certification for long-term care insurance (LTCI) service need. Information regarding LTCI certification or death was obtained from the municipal government. Results: Of 8091 independent older adults, 5542 seniors completed the KCL questionnaire. Based on the t-KCL score, they were classified into 3 groups: 2962 (53.4%) as robust, 1625 (29.3%) as pre-frail, and 955 (17.2%) as frail. Over the 3 years, 510 seniors (9.2%) had new LTCI certifications and 170 (3.1%) died. Cox regression analysis adjusted for age and sex showed that the classification of frailty status by t-KCL score was significantly associated with the incidence of dependency both in the pre-frail and the frail [hazard ratios (HRs): 2.027 and 4.768; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.575-2.608 and 3.733-6.089, respectively]. On the other hand, the ability to predict death was significant, but only in the frail group (HR: 2.830; 95% CI: 1.952-4.104). Conclusion: The classification of frailty status by t-KCL score could be a significant tool to predict the incidences of dependency and mortality in older adults. © 2017 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.


Otsuka R.,National Institute for Longevity science NILS LSA | Tange C.,National Institute for Longevity science NILS LSA | Nishita Y.,National Institute for Longevity science NILS LSA | Kato Y.,National Institute for Longevity science NILS LSA | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background/Objectives:To clarify the association of serum docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels with cognitive decline over 10 years.Subjects/Methods:This study was part of the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging, and was conducted with 232 male and 198 female Japanese community-dwelling subjects aged 60-79 years in the second wave (2000-2002). Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in both the second and seventh (2010-2012) waves. Fasting venous blood samples were collected in the morning, and serum DHA and EPA levels were measured. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed among participants with an MMSE score ≥24 in the second wave (n=430) to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for MMSE score ≤23 or MMSE score decline ≥4 10 years later. These estimates were based on baseline tertiles of serum DHA or EPA levels, and controlled for age, sex, education, MMSE score at baseline, alcohol consumption, current smoking, body mass index and disease history.Results:Fifteen (3.5%) subjects whose MMSE score was ≤23 and 36 (8.3%) subjects whose MMSE score declined to ≥4 showed cognitive decline. Multivariate-adjusted OR (95% CI) for the lowest through highest tertiles of serum DHA to MMSE score ≤23 or decline≥4 were 1.00 (reference), 0.11 (0.02-0.58) and 0.17 (0.04-0.74), or 1.00 (reference), 0.22 (0.08-0.61) and 0.31 (0.12-0.75), respectively (P for trend=0.01 or 0.04). Serum EPA was not associated with cognitive decline.Conclusions:The study gives some indication that a moderately high level of serum DHA might prevent cognitive decline among community-dwelling elderly Japanese individuals. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Wang C.,Nagoya University | Wang C.,Aichi Medical University | Yatsuya H.,Nagoya University | Yatsuya H.,Aichi University | And 13 more authors.
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2015

Objective: To investigate differences in the association of parental history of diabetes with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the offspring according to the sex of the parent and the offspring's body weight. Methods: A prospective cohort study of 4446 middle-aged non-diabetic Japanese men and women were followed in Aichi Prefecture, central Japan, from 2002 to 2011. Subjects were categorized by their self-reported parental history of diabetes ("no parental history," "father only," "mother only," and "both"). The association of parental history of diabetes and incidence in the offspring was examined according to overweight status adjusted for age, sex, birth weight, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, total energy intake, body mass index, and number of metabolic syndrome components. Results: During follow-up (median 8.9. years), 277 subjects developed T2DM. Parental history of diabetes was positively associated with T2DM incidence. However, stratified analysis by overweight status revealed that only maternal history was associated with increased T2DM incidence in non-overweight subjects (hazard ratio. =. 2.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.41-3.91). While in overweight subjects, paternal history was significantly associated with higher T2DM incidence (hazard ratio. =. 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.19-3.28). Conclusions: Our results suggest that parental history of diabetes mellitus is associated with the incidence of T2DM in offspring differently according to the sex of the affected parent and the offspring's body weight. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Otsuka R.,National Institute for Longevity science NILS LSA | Yatsuya H.,Nagoya University | Tamakoshi K.,Nagoya University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: Although food and nutrient consumption among the Japanese population, known to have one of the longest life expectancies in the world, has changed markedly after World War II, little is known about the influences age, time and birth cohort have had. The present study examined the effects age, time and birth cohort have had on intake of 14 food groups from 1989 to 2009, using published data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan. Methods. The survey included 575 adults (271 men and 304 women) in 1989, 8431 (3952 men and 4479 women) in 1999 and 5632 (2629 men and 3003 women) in 2009. The effects of age on energy-adjusted food intakes defined by gender and birth cohort (birth in 1930-1939, 1940-1949, 1950-1959, 1960-1969, 1970-1979) were estimated using the mean polish process. Results: Intakes of meat and confectionary increased whereas those of milk and dairy products, sugar, and fats and oils decreased from 1989 to 2009. Both men and women in the 1940's birth cohort consumed more fruit, although differences in food intake by birth cohort were less discernible. Furthermore, meat, fats and oils, and wheat intake decreased while fruits, fish, beans and vegetables consumption increased with aging in both men and women. Conclusions: The present analysis suggests intakes of meat and confectionary have increased in Japan over the past 20 years regardless of age and generation. Also, younger individuals are less likely to consume fruits, fish, beans and vegetables regardless of the birth cohort and time period. Differences in food group consumption by birth cohorts born between 1930 and 1979 were not obvious. The first indication of these findings would be that in order to avoid ongoing increases in meat and confectionery intake, the public health strategy should target the whole Japanese population. Secondly, intervening with the diet of younger individuals, especially today, would be reasonable as it is unknown whether today's younger individuals will adopt a healthier diet when they age as the other generations did. © 2014 Otsuka et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Toyoshima H.,Anjo Kosei Hospital | Otsuka R.,National Institute for Longevity science NILS LSA | Hashimoto S.,Fujita Health University Hospital | Tamakoshi K.,Nagoya University | And 2 more authors.
Circulation Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Chronic mental stress has been reported to be directly or inversely proportional to blood pressure (BP). To explain this inconsistent relationship, we assumed effect-modification by body mass index (BMI). Methods and Results: We examined 1,673 Japanese male local government employees who were not taking antihypertensive drugs or had no history of cardiovascular disease. BP and BMI were recorded at yearly health checkups. Exposure to mental stress, smoking, drinking, exercising, and salty taste were checked by questionnaire in 1997 and 2002. The main effect and interaction of stress and BMI on the averages and changes of resting systolic and diastolic BPs over the 5 years were assessed by a general linear model by adjusting for confounders. Obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) was significantly related with higher average systolic and diastolic BPs (P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively), whereas mental stress was not, showing a significantly different relationship dependent on BMI (P for interaction =0.002, 0.004): a significant and directly proportional association with systolic and diastolic BPs (P=0.001, 0.001) in the obese, but borderline significant and inversely proportional association (P=0.07, 0.08) in the lean. Only BMI was significantly related to the degree of BP change. Conclusions: Whereas BMI was proportionally associated with BP, BMI was a modifier which, depending on its level, inverted the direction of the association between chronic mental stress and resting BP.


Otsuka R.,National Institute for Longevity science NILS LSA | Kato Y.,National Institute for Longevity science NILS LSA | Kato Y.,Aichi Shukutoku University | Nishita Y.,National Institute for Longevity science NILS LSA | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging | Year: 2016

Objective: This study attempts to describe trends in energy intake and weight change over 12 years according to age at first participation in the study. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA), a community-based study. Participants: Participants included 922 men and 879 women who participated in the first study-wave (age 40–79 years) and also participated in at least one study-wave from the second to seventh study-wave. Each study-wave was conducted biennially. For individuals, the entire follow-up period was 12 years. Measurements: Energy intake was calculated from 3-day dietary records with photographs. Weight and height were measured under a fasting state. To estimate linear changes in energy intake and weight over 12 years according to age at first study-wave, we used the mixed-effects model. Results: Mean (SD) follow-up time and number of study-wave visits were 9.5 (3.7) years and 5.4 (1.8) times, respectively. The fixed effect of the interaction of age and time in energy intake and weight was statistically or marginally statistically significant both in men (p<0.01) and in women (p<0.06). In men, when energy intake was estimated according to age, the rate of decrease in energy intake increased from -6.8 to -33.8 kcal/year for ages 40-79 years. In women, the rate of decrease in energy intake slightly increased in older age groups (-9.1 to -16.7 kcal/year for ages 40-79 years). Weight increased in males in their 40s (0.07 kg/year from age 40) and started to decline by age 53. In women, weight started to decline around age 47 (-0.04 kg/year). Conclusion: Twelve-year longitudinal data showed energy intake declined both in men and women in their 40s, and the rate of decrease increased in older males. Weight started to decline in men in their mid-50s and women in their late 40s. Further studies that focus on energy intake and weight reduction are needed to prevent weight loss or underweight in an increasingly aging society. © 2005, Serdi and Springer-Verlag France.


Otsuka R.,National Institute for Longevity science NILS LSA | Kato Y.,National Institute for Longevity science NILS LSA | Imai T.,National Institute for Longevity science NILS LSA | Imai T.,Doshisha Women's College of Liberal Arts | And 4 more authors.
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2015

Cross-sectional studies have shown age-related increases in blood docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid and decreases in arachidonic acid. We describe serum docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic, and arachidonic acid concentrations over 13 years (1997-2012) across four study waves and serum fatty acid composition over 4 years (2006-2012) between two study waves according to age groups by sex in the same subjects. We included 443 men and 435 women aged 40-79 years at baseline. Serum arachidonic acid concentrations increased in all sex and age groups over 13 years, and eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acid concentrations increased in males and females who were younger and middle-aged at baseline. Only serum arachidonic acid composition increased over 4 years in men and women who were 40-69 years at baseline, even after adjustment for arachidonic acid intake. These findings suggest a secular increase trend in serum arachidonic acid levels over 13 years among randomly selected community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly Japanese. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Uemura M.,Nagoya University | Yatsuya H.,Nagoya University | Yatsuya H.,Aichi University | Hilawe E.H.,Nagoya University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2015

Background: Skipping breakfast has been suspected as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but the associations are not entirely consistent across ethnicities or sexes, and the issue has not been adequately addressed in the Japanese population. Methods: We followed 4631 participants (3600 men and 1031 women) in a work-site cohort of participants aged 35-66 years in 2002 through 2011 for T2DM development. Frequency of eating breakfast was self-reported and was subsequently dichotomized to breakfast skippers, who eat breakfast 3-5 times/week or less, and to eaters. Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors, including dietary factors, smoking and other lifestyles, body mass index (BMI), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) at baseline. Results: During 8.9 years of follow-up, 285 T2DM cases (231 men and 54 women) developed. Compared to participants who reported eating breakfast every day, maximally-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of those with the frequency of almost every day and 3-5, 1-2, and 0 days/week were: 1.06 (95% CI, 0.73-1.53), 2.07 (95% CI, 1.20-3.56), 1.37 (95% CI, 0.82-2.29), and 2.12 (95% CI, 1.19-3.76), respectively. In a dichotomized analysis, breakfast skipping was positively associated with T2DM incidence (maximally-adjusted hazard ratio 1.73; 95% CI, 1.24-2.42). The positive associations were found in both men and women, current and non-current smokers, normal weight and overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2), and normal glycemic status and impaired fasting glycemic status (FBG 110 to <126 mg/dL) individuals at baseline (Ps for interaction all >0.05). Conclusions: The present study in middle-aged Japanese men and women suggests that skipping breakfast may increase the risk of T2DM independent of lifestyles and baseline levels of BMI and FBG.


PubMed | Kochi University, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Nagoya University of Arts and Sciences, National Institute for Longevity Science NILS LSA and Aichi Shukutoku University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics | Year: 2015

This study assessed whether physical function can indicate a risk of decline in higher-level functional capacity.Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 466 men and 495 women aged 40-79 years at baseline (1997-2000), whose total score for the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) at baseline was 11 and who participated in the follow-up survey. Baseline physical function examination included grip strength, comfortable gait speed, and sway area with eyes open. A decline in higher-level functional capacity was defined as a 2-point decrease in the TMIG-IC score after 14 years. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for decline in the TMIG-IC score for 14 years according to a 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in physical function measurements at baseline were estimated.Subjects with decreased TMIG-IC scores included 78 (16.7%) men and 80 (16.2%) women. In women, the multivariate-adjusted OR (95% CI) for a TMIG-IC score decrease with a 1-SD increase in comfortable gait speed was 0.68 (0.50-0.92; p=0.013), and that with a 1-SD increase in sway area with eyes open was 1.49 (1.17-1.90; p=0.001). Grip strength was not associated with TMIG-IC score decline. None of the physical performance measures affected TMIG-IC score declines in men.These results suggest that gait speed decreases and sway area increases might predict a risk of decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly women.


PubMed | Gifu University, Fukushima Medical University, Anjo Kosei Hospital, Aichi University and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Preventive medicine | Year: 2015

To investigate differences in the association of parental history of diabetes with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the offspring according to the sex of the parent and the offsprings body weight.A prospective cohort study of 4446 middle-aged non-diabetic Japanese men and women were followed in Aichi Prefecture, central Japan, from 2002 to 2011. Subjects were categorized by their self-reported parental history of diabetes (no parental history, father only, mother only, and both). The association of parental history of diabetes and incidence in the offspring was examined according to overweight status adjusted for age, sex, birth weight, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, total energy intake, body mass index, and number of metabolic syndrome components.During follow-up (median 8.9 years), 277 subjects developed T2DM. Parental history of diabetes was positively associated with T2DM incidence. However, stratified analysis by overweight status revealed that only maternal history was associated with increased T2DM incidence in non-overweight subjects (hazard ratio=2.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.41-3.91). While in overweight subjects, paternal history was significantly associated with higher T2DM incidence (hazard ratio=1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.19-3.28).Our results suggest that parental history of diabetes mellitus is associated with the incidence of T2DM in offspring differently according to the sex of the affected parent and the offsprings body weight.

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