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Pagliarini V.,National Institute For Infectious Disease L Spallanzani Irccs | Pagliarini V.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Pagliarini V.,Laboratory of Neuroembryology | Giglio P.,National Institute For Infectious Disease L Spallanzani Irccs | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2015

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has recently emerged as an alternative target to induce cell death in tumours, because prolonged ER stress results in the induction of apoptosis even in chemoresistant transformed cells. Here, we show that the DNAdamage- responsive pro-apoptotic factor E2F1 is unexpectedly downregulated during the ER stress-mediated apoptotic programme. E2F1 decline is a late event during the ER response and is mediated by the two unfolded protein response (UPR) sensors ATF6 and IRE1 (also known as ERN1). Whereas ATF6 directly interacts with the E2F1 promoter, IRE1 requires the involvement of the known E2F1 modulator E2F7, through the activation of its main target Xbp-1. Importantly, inhibition of the E2F1 decrease prevents ER-stress-induced apoptosis, whereas E2F1 knockdown efficiently sensitises cells to ER stress-dependent apoptosis, leading to the upregulation of two main factors in the UPR pro-apoptotic execution phase, Puma and Noxa (also known as BBC3 and PMAIP1, respectively). Our results point to a novel key role of E2F1 in the cell survival/death decision under ER stress, and unveil E2F1 inactivation as a valuable novel potential therapeutic strategy to increase the response of tumour cells to ER stress-based anticancer treatments. © 2015 Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Rodolfo C.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Ciccosanti F.,National Institute For Infectious Disease L Spallanzani Irccs | Giacomo G.D.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Piacentini M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 2 more authors.
Expert Review of Proteomics | Year: 2010

Alzheimers, Parkinsons and Huntingtons disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are the most relevant neurodegenerative syndromes worldwide. The identification of the etiology and additional factors contributing to the onset and progression of these diseases is of great importance in order to develop both preventive and therapeutic intervention. A common feature of these pathologies is the formation of aggregates, containing mutated and/or misfolded proteins, in specific subsets of neurons, which progressively undergo functional impairment and die. The relationship between protein aggregation and the molecular events leading to neurodegeneration has not yet been clarified. In the last decade, several lines of evidence pointed to a major role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the onset of these pathologies. Here, we review how proteomics has been applied to neurodegenerative diseases in order to characterize the relationship existing between protein aggregation and mitochondrial alterations. Moreover, we highlight recent advances in the use of proteomics to identify protein modifications caused by oxidative stress. Future developments in this field are expected to significantly contribute to the full comprehension of the molecular mechanisms at the heart of neurodegeneration. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd.

PubMed | National Institute For Infectious Disease L Spallanzani Irccs
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Autophagy | Year: 2012

Under stress conditions cells activate different response pathways which result in cell survival or apoptosis depending on: (1) the nature of the insults, (2) the type, if acute or chronic stress, and (3) how long the stress persists. Generally, autophagy is induced early to sustain cell survival and inhibit cell death. However, adverse conditions are able to overcome autophagy to promote cell death. Increasing evidence suggests that the inhibition of autophagy by the apoptotic machinery has been proposed as one of the crucial events responsible for the irreversible switch from survival to death. The mechanism seems to be related to the selective apoptotic protease-mediated degradation of key autophagic proteins. We recently found that AMBRA1, an important regulator of the autophagic process mediating the initial steps of autophagosome formation, is also irreversibly degraded by the combined activity of caspases and calpains. This phenomenon is not merely a consequence of apoptosis execution but represents a key step required to efficiently promote the autophagic vs apoptosis switch.

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