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Bricard D.,Institute National dEtudes Demographiques | Jusot F.,Institute National dEtudes Demographiques | Jusot F.,University of Paris Dauphine | Beck F.,French Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Public Health | Year: 2016

Objectives: The study investigates the life cycle patterns of educational inequalities in smoking according to gender over three successive generations. Methods: Based on retrospective smoking histories collected by the nationwide French Health Barometer survey 2010, we explored educational inequalities in smoking at each age, using the relative index of inequality. Results: Educational inequalities in smoking increase across cohorts for men and women, corresponding to a decline in smoking among the highly educated alongside progression among the lower educated. The analysis also shows a life cycle evolution: for all cohorts and for men and women, inequalities are considerable during adolescence, then start declining from 18 years until the age of peak prevalence (around 25), after which they remain stable throughout the life cycle, even tending to rise for the most recent cohort. Conclusions: This analysis contributes to the description of the “smoking epidemic” and highlights adolescence and late adulthood as life cycle stages with greater inequalities. © 2015, Swiss School of Public Health. Source

Springvloet L.,Maastricht University | Willemsen M.C.,Maastricht University | Mons U.,German Cancer Research Center | Van Den Putte B.,University of Amsterdam | And 8 more authors.
Health Education Research | Year: 2014

This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Higher educated smokers noticed anti-tobacco information slightly more often than lower educated smokers (F(2) = 25.78, P < 0.001). Noticing anti-tobacco information was associated with more negative smoking-related attitudes (β = 0.05, P < 0.001) and more quit intentions (OR = 1.08, P < 0.001). Among smokers without a quit intention at baseline, a positive association was found for noticing anti-tobacco information at baseline with follow-up quit intention (OR = 1.14, P = 0.003). No other longitudinal associations were found. No educational differences were found in the association of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes but associations with quit intentions were found only among low (OR = 1.12, P = 0.001) and high educated respondents (OR = 1.11, P < 0.001) and not among moderate educated respondents (OR = 1.02, P = 0.43). Noticing anti-tobacco information may positively influence quit intentions and possibly smoking-related attitudes. Lower educated smokers were as likely to be influenced by anti-tobacco information as higher educated smokers but noticed anti-tobacco information less often; increasing reach of anti-tobacco information may increase impact in this group. © 2015 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Mcneill A.,Kings College London | Guignard R.,National Institute for Health Promotion and Health Education INPES | Beck F.,French Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction | Beck F.,University of Paris Descartes | And 2 more authors.
Addiction | Year: 2015

Aim: In France, following a long-term decline in smoking prevalence, an increase in smoking was observed between 2005 and 2010, an unusual occurrence in countries in the 'mature' stage of the smoking epidemic. By contrast, smoking prevalence in England, the neighbouring country, continued its long-term decline. Methods: We identified and translated recent reports on smoking and tobacco control in France and using these assessed the main data sources on smoking and compared them with similar sources in England, in order to explore possible explanations. In France, national smoking prevalence data are collected 5-yearly, minimizing opportunities for fine-grained analysis; the comparable study in England is implemented annually. Results: We identified several probable causes of the recent increased prevalence of smoking in France, the primary one being the absence of sufficient price rises between 2005 and 2010, due probably to the lack of a robust tobacco control strategy, which also appeared to have empowered tobacco industry influence. Funding to compensate tobacconists appears to incentivize tobacco sales and is significantly higher than tobacco control funding. Conclusions: Mindful of the limitations of a case-study approach, the absence of sufficient price rises in the context of a weak tobacco control strategy seems the most likely explanation for the recent increase in smoking prevalence in France. A new cancer control plan and a national smoking reduction programme have been proposed by the French government in 2014 which, depending on implementation, may reverse the trend. In both countries, the higher levels of smoking among the more disadvantaged groups are of great concern and require greater political leadership for effective action. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction. Source

Guignard R.,National Institute for Health Promotion and Health Education INPES | Wilquin J.-L.,National Institute for Health Promotion and Health Education INPES | Richard J.-B.,National Institute for Health Promotion and Health Education INPES | Beck F.,National Institute for Health Promotion and Health Education INPES | Beck F.,University of Paris Descartes
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objectives:It is crucial for policy makers to monitor the evolution of tobacco smoking prevalence. In France, this monitoring is based on a series of cross-sectional general population surveys, the Health Barometers, conducted every five years and based on random samples. A methodological study has been carried out to assess the reliability of a monitoring system based on regular quota sampling surveys for smoking prevalence.Design/ Outcome Measures:In 2010, current and daily tobacco smoking prevalences obtained in a quota survey on 8,018 people were compared with those of the 2010 Health Barometer carried out on 27,653 people. Prevalences were assessed separately according to the telephone equipment of the interviewee (landline phone owner vs "mobile-only"), and logistic regressions were conducted in the pooled database to assess the impact of the telephone equipment and of the survey mode on the prevalences found. Finally, logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were conducted in the random sample in order to determine the impact of the needed number of calls to interwiew "hard-to-reach" people on the prevalence found.Results:Current and daily prevalences were higher in the random sample (respectively 33.9% and 27.5% in 15-75 years-old) than in the quota sample (respectively 30.2% and 25.3%). In both surveys, current and daily prevalences were lower among landline phone owners (respectively 31.8% and 25.5% in the random sample and 28.9% and 24.0% in the quota survey). The required number of calls was slightly related to the smoking status after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics.Conclusion:Random sampling appears to be more effective than quota sampling, mainly by making it possible to interview hard-to-reach populations. © 2013 Guignard et al. Source

Husky M.M.,University of Paris Descartes | Guignard R.,National Institute for Health Promotion and Health Education INPES | Beck F.,National Institute for Health Promotion and Health Education INPES | Michel G.,University of Bordeaux Segalen
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2013

Background Data from large nationally representative samples are needed to provide the empirical foundation to inform health policies for the prevention of suicide risk and risk behaviors in men and women. Methods Data were extracted from the 2010 Health Barometer, a large telephone survey on a representative sample of the general population aged 15-85 years living in France (n=27,653), carried out by the National Institute for Health Promotion and Health Education. Data were collected between October 2009 and July 2010. A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system was used. Results Overall, 3.9% of respondents aged 15 to 85 reported past year suicidal ideation, and 0.5% reported a suicide attempt in that time period. Increased rates of risky sexual behavior are associated with ideation and attempt in both men and women, after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Homosexuality or bisexuality are associated with suicidal ideation for both men and women, but not with attempts. Substance misuse, physical and sexual assaults are strongly associated with suicidal symptoms for both men and women. Early first experiences with sex, tobacco, and alcohol are associated with suicidal symptoms though somewhat differentially for men and women. Limitations Cross-sectional survey. Conclusion The findings underscore associations between suicidal thoughts and behaviors and risk behaviors such as unprotected sex and substance use in men and women throughout the lifespan. These associations highlight the need for preventive strategies such as screening for risk behaviors in order to identify men and women particularly at risk for suicidal behavior. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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