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Akhtar S.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology NIGAB | Akhtar S.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Akhtar S.,International Islamic University, Islamabad | Shahzad A.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology NIGAB | And 4 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

Groundnut is prone to iron (Fe) deficiency, particularly in calcareous soils, which severely affect growth and productivity. The soils of major groundnut producing areas of Pakistan are calcareous in nature, resulting in limited yield. Hydroponics experiments were performed aiming at the selection of groundnut genotypes with better ability to grow in calcareous soils. For that purpose, 20 locally grown genotypes were screened for their tolerance in terms of morpho-physiological parameters against iron (Fe) deficiency through hydroponics experiments. Various morpho-physiological parameters revealed BARI- 2000 and 96CG009 as Fe deficiency tolerant genotypes, whereas BARD-699 and ICGS17 as Fe deficiency sensitive genotypes. The Fe-reduction capacity of roots of these genotypes was also estimated at 2, 4, 6 and 8 day interval. The results depicted the highest Fe-reduction capacity at day 4 among all the genotypes, which decreased at day 6 and 8. At day 2, Fereduction capacity of 96CG009 was found higher representing its early response to Fe deficiency. Fe-reduction capacity of BARI-2000 was the highest indicating its tolerance to Fe deficiency, whereas BARD-699 was sensitive to Fe deficiency. The genetic differences among groundnut genotypes were analyzed using thirty SSR markers. These markers amicably differentiated all the genotypes resulting in three main clusters. The phylogenetic analyses based on SSR markers data revealed that Fe deficiency tolerant genotypes tended to cluster together. This implicates that molecular markers can be used for selection of groundnut genotypes with better traits. © 2014 University of Agriculture. All rights reserved.


Abbas Z.,Pakistan National Agricultural Research Center | Abbas Z.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology NIGAB | Abbas Z.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Zafar Y.,Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission PAEC | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2013

Insects have natural potential to develop resistance against chemical insecticides. Several resistance strategies have been suggested including biopesticides and use of two dissimilar toxins. Advances in molecular biology techniques have now allowed construction of chimeric proteins to delay the development of resistance in insect population, but still there are chances of developing resistance in insect population against them as these fusions are based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes only, which have some homology in their amino acid sequences, having same mode of action and derived from same bacterial origin. In the present study ω-ACTX-Hv1a toxin gene (Hvt) as an insect calcium channel antagonist is fused with Bt cry1Ac to combine both strategies (biopesticides and two dissimilar toxins) and delay the resistance in insect population. The recombinant protein has been successfully expressed in prokaryotic system and was detected by SDS PAGE. Topical application of the 1.0 pmol purified recombinant protein to the thoracic region paralyzed and immobilized the Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera littoralis larvae within 2 h. 100% mortality was observed in insects after 24 h. The LD50 was found to be 4 and 2 pmol per gram of body weight for H. armigera and S. littoralis larvae, respectively. The present study clearly indicates that this recombinant protein is highly effective against agronomical important lepidopteron insects and is an excellent candidate for use as a biopesticides or expressed heterogeneously in agricultural crops to provide long lasting resistance to insect attacks. © 2013 Friends Science Publishers.


Qamar M.,Pakistan National Agricultural Research Center | Ashiq Rabbani M.,Plant Genetic Resources Institute PGRI | Shinwari Z.K.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Iqbal M.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology NIGAB
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

Stripe and leaf rusts are the major constraints to bread wheat production in Pakistan. Molecular markers were used to investigate the presence of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance gene cluster Lr34/Yr18 and stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in 52 Pakistani bread wheat cultivars/lines. PCR amplification of DNA fragments using DNA marker csLV-34 showed that 13 of the studied cultivars/lines, namely '03FJ26', 'NR 337', 'NR 339' 'NR 347', 'NR 350', 'Manthar', 'Margalla 99', 'Iqbal 2000', 'Saleem 2000', 'Wafaq 2001', 'Marwat 2001', 'Pirsabak 2004' and 'Fareed 2006' carry leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr34/Yr18. Stem rust resistance gene Sr2 was observed in 36 Pakistani spring wheat cultivars/lines using stm560.3tgag marker. The slow rusting gene Sr2 needs to be combined with additional stem rust resistance genes to establish durable resistance against Ug99 in modern wheat cultivars. Low frequency of Lr34/Yr18 was found in Pakistani wheats. This gene cluster needs to be incorporated into Pakistani wheats for durable rust resistance.


Rana A.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology NIGAB | Rana A.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Ali G.M.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology NIGAB | Ali S.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology NIGAB | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Leukemia is a many-sided molecular disorder that arises because of over expression of oncogenes, suppression of tumor suppressor genes, and chromosomal translocations. These chromosomal rearrangements are nonetheless among the many determinants that underlie transformation of cells from normal to a cancerous phenotype and predispose cells to refractoriness against interventions by reduced drug influx and substantial drug efflux. This review unfolds current understanding of BCR-ABL1 (break point cluster region-c-abl oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase) signaling with a focus on apoptotic suppressive mechanisms and alternative approaches to chronic myeloid leukemia therapy.


Rana A.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology NIGAB | Rana A.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Ali G.M.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology NIGAB | Ali S.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology NIGAB | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Increasing sophisticated information suggests that cancer cells express constitutively active oncogenic kinases such as breakpoint cluster region- c-abl oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase (BCR-ABL1) that promote carcinogenesis independent of extrinsic growth factors. It is a well-established fact that through the aberrant activation of BCR-ABL1 signal transduction cascade, the perception of cellular growth signals becomes disconnected from the processes promoting cell growth, and this underlies the pathophysiology of leukemia. In this particular review we discuss the oncogenes and tumor suppressors comprising the regulatory network upstream and downstream of BCR-ABL1 and dismantle how derailed BCR-ABL1 signaling provides cell a selective growth advantage. Besides, we discuss why activation of BCR-ABL1, as an outcome of distinct oncogenic events, results in miscellaneous clinical outcomes, and how the intricacy of the BCR-ABL1 signaling network might dictate therapeutic approaches. In this review, our current comprehension of BCR-ABL1 signaling will be summarized.

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