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Asif M.,University of Alberta | Yang R.-C.,University of Alberta | Navabi A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Iqbal M.,University of Alberta | And 7 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2015

A randomly derived recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (n = 163) from a cross between CIMMYT spring wheat ‘Attila’ and the Canadian ‘CDC Go’ was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting various agronomic and qual­ity traits. The experiment was also designed to investigate the feasibility of organic wheat breeding by determining selection differentials and the effect of Rht-B1 in paired organic and conventional management systems. Heritabil­ity estimates differed between systems for five of nine traits measured; including grain yield, number of tillers, plant height, kernel weight, and grain protein content. Direct selection in each management system resulted in 50% or fewer selected individuals in common between the two systems, for eight of the nine (except for flower­ing time) studied traits. Most QTL were specific to either the organic or the conventional man­agement system. However, consistent QTL for grain yield, grain volume weight, kernel weight, and days to flowering were mapped in both systems on chromosomes 6A, 1B, 3A, and 5B, respectively. The effect of Rht-B1 was more pro­nounced in organic systems, where RILs carrying the wild-type allele were taller, produced more grain yield with higher grain protein content, and suppressed weed biomass to a greater extent than those carrying dwarfing alleles. Results of the present study suggest that differences exist between the two management systems for QTL effects. Indirect selection of superior genotypes from one system to another will not result in the advancement of the best possible genotypes. Therefore, selection of spring wheat cultivars for organic systems should be conducted on organ­ically managed lands. © Crop Science Society of America

Khalid A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Kausar F.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Arshad M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Mahmood T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ahmed I.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Presence of huge amount of salts in the wastewater of textile dyeing industry is one of the major limiting factors in the development of an effective biotreatment system for the removal of azo dyes from textile effluents. Bacterial spp. capable of thriving under high salt conditions could be employed for the treatment of saline dyecontaminated textile wastewaters. The present study was aimed at isolating the most efficient bacterial strains capable of decolorizing azo dyes under high saline conditions. Fiftyeight bacterial strains were isolated from seawater, seawater sediment, and saline soil, using mineral salt medium enriched with 100 mg l-1 Reactive Black-5 azo dye and 50 g NaCl l-1 salt concentration. Bacterial strains KS23 (Psychrobacter alimentarius) and KS26 (Staphylococcus equorum) isolated from seawater sediment were able to decolorize three reactive dyes including Reactive Black 5, Reactive Golden Ovifix, and Reactive Blue BRS very efficiently in liquid medium over a wide range of salt concentration (0-100 g NaCl l-1). Time required for complete decolorization of 100 mg dye l-1 varied with the type of dye and salt concentration. In general, there was an inverse linear relationship between the velocity of the decolorization reaction (V) and salt concentration. This study suggested that bacteria isolated from saline conditions such as seawater sediment could be used in designing a bioreactor for the treatment of textile effluent containing high concentration of salts. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.

Ijaz A.,The Water Council | Ijaz A.,University of Gujrat | Anwar Z.,University of Gujrat | Irshad M.,University of Gujrat | And 6 more authors.
Romanian Biotechnological Letters | Year: 2014

Bio-conversion of cellulosic based biomass materials for cellulase production is one among the major increasing demands for various biotechnological applications. Aspergillus niger was cultured in corn cobs based fermentation medium under some pre-optimized growth conditions. After four days of still culture incubation a large magnitude of cellulase (28.3±0.24U/mL) was achieved when the SSF medium containing 10 g corn cobs inoculated with 5 mL of inoculum at 30°C. The effects of different minerals were optimized through Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by adopting a Central Composite Design (CCD). The crude cellulase was purified 5.71 fold with specific activity of 232.5U/mg using ammonium sulfate precipitation, and Sephadex-G-100 gel filtration column chromatography. Enzyme was found to be a monomeric protein as evident by single band corresponding to 43 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Characterization revealed that the purified cellulase was optimally active and thermally more stable at pH 7 and 70oC, respectively. Using carboxymethyl cellulose as substrate, the enzyme showed maximum activity (Vmax) of 45.5U/mL with its corresponding Km value of 25μM. Among activators/inhibitors, different metal ions (EDTA, Hg2+ and Zn+2) showed inhibitory effect up to different extents as different concentrations, whereas, the enzyme was activated by Co2+ and Mg2+ at the concentration of 5mM. © 2014 University of Bucharest.

Gurcan K.,Erciyes University | Onal N.,Erciyes University | Yilmaz K.U.,Erciyes University | Ullah S.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is an important fruit crop in Turkey, where a rich diversity of apricot cultivars and seedlings is prevalent. The genetic diversity of the Turkish apricot germplasm was investigated. The profiles of 18 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci of 239 accessions in the genetic source collection of the country as well as those of European and Pakistani accessions were obtained. Eleven SSRs were selected from the apricot molecular linkage group 1 (LG1), and these are located close to the major Plum pox virus (PPV) resistance locus. The remaining seven SSRs represent the other six linkage groups. A high level of genetic diversity (He. =. 0.74, Ho. =. 0.63) was observed. Stark Early Orange (SEO)/Harlayne-type resistance alleles of three SSR loci (PGS1.21-240, PGS1.23-161 and PGS1.24-119) were found to be rare in the Turkish accessions (1.7%) but were abundantly found in the Pakistani accessions (41.7%). The genetic clustering analyses, the neighbor-joining tree constructed from the genetic distances of the proportions of shared alleles and the population genetic structure did not distinguish the European accessions from the Turkish accessions. However, 'Harlayne', 'SEO' and the putative resistant apricot accessions were grouped together, indicating a common heritage for the resistant accessions. SSR profiles of the accessions will improve the management of apricot gene banks, and information on the genetic variation in Turkish apricots will assist the international research community. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Zafar A.Y.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology | Iqbal J.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology | Iqbal M.M.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology | Rashid U.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Salinity and drought are main threat to agriculture productivity, to avoid further losses it is necessary to improve the genetic material of crops against these stresses In this present study, AtNHX1, a vacuolar type Na +/H + antiporter gene driven by 35S promoter was introduced into groundnut using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system. The stable integration of the AtNHX1 gene was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and southern blot analysis. It was found that transgenic plants having AtNHX1 gene are more resistant to high concentration of salt and water deprivation than the wild type plants. Salt and proline level in the leaves of the transgenic plants were also much higher than that of wild type plants. The results showed that overexpression of AtNHX1 gene not only improved salt tolerance but also drought tolerance in transgenic groundnut. Our results suggest that these plants could be cultivated in salt and drought-affected soils. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

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