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San Luis Potosí, Mexico

Mejia-Teniente L.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Duran-Flores F.D.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Chapa-Oliver A.M.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Torres-Pacheco I.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2013

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important ROS molecule (Reactive oxygen species) that serves as a signal of oxidative stress and activation of signaling cascades as a result of the early response of the plant to biotic stress. This response can also be generated with the application of elicitors, stable molecules that induce the activation of transduction cascades and hormonal pathways, which trigger induced resistance to environmental stress. In this work, we evaluated the endogenous H2O2 production caused by salicylic acid (SA), chitosan (QN), and H2O2 elicitors in Capsicum annuum L. Hydrogen peroxide production after elicitation, catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities, as well as gene expression analysis of cat1, pal, and pathogenesis-related protein 1 (pr1) were determined. Our results displayed that 6.7 and 10 mM SA concentrations, and, 14 and 18 mM H2O2 concentrations, induced an endogenous H2O2 and gene expression. QN treatments induced the same responses in lesser proportion than the other two elicitors. Endogenous H2O2 production monitored during several days, showed results that could be an indicator for determining application opportunity uses in agriculture for maintaining plant alert systems against a stress. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Sanchez-Cohen I.,National Water Research Institute | Diaz-Padilla G.,National Institute for Forestry | Velasquez-Valle M.,National Water Research Institute | Slack D.C.,University of Arizona | And 2 more authors.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2015

Rural inhabitants of arid lands constantly face a lack of sufficient water to fulfill their agricultural and household needs. In this situation they have to take quick and precise decisions about how to cope with the situation. Moreover, there is not readily available technical information to support their decisions regarding the course of action they should follow to handle the agro-climatic risk. In this paper a computer model (soil water balance model) is described to assess the impact on crops yields of rainfall shortages in dry lands in Mexico. The model is linked to a knowledge based database where a farmer may find readily available information to support cropping decisions. The knowledge base activates when the computed average crop yield is less than the 50% of the expected crop yield. The knowledge base provides information on risk, potential crops, and the geographical location (counties) where the crop may succeed. Also, it provides a technology to increase water productivity under limited availability situations. Further, the model can evaluate the impact of a climate change scenario (IPCC B2). Other inputs to the model being equal, the user may shift the model to run the climate change scenario and to compare the outputs of the model to assess the climate change impact on future crops yields. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Salgado-Hernandez E.G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Bouda J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Villa-Godoy A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Romano-Munoz J.L.,National Institute for Forestry | And 2 more authors.
Czech Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

Concentrations of calcidiol, calcitriol, and minerals in blood serum and colostrum of 14 primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during short-period prepartum and postpartum were determined and compared. Blood samples were collected between days 5 and 2 prepartum and 6 h, 12 h, 7 and 21 days postpartum. Nearly 66% of primiparous and 71% of multiparous cows had subclinical postpartum hypocalcemia. Prepartum serum calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) were higher in primiparous cows; Ca decreased in both groups at 6 and 12 h and returned to baseline values 7 days postpartum. Calcidiol and calcitriol concentrations were equal on day 5 prepartum in both groups. In multiparous cows, calcidiol and calcitriol concentration increased at 6 h postpartum and remained elevated at 12 h postpartum; there were no changes in primiparous cows for these analytes. The total secretion of Ca in the colostrum from the first milking was similar in both groups and positively correlated with serum Ca at 6 and 12 h after calving. It is concluded that postpartum increases in the calcidiol and calcitriol concentration were a normal response to the decrease of serum calcium concentration only in multiparous cows. The total Ca secretion in the colostrum of the first milking postpartum does not reflect the grade of hypocalcemia.

Morales A.L.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Guzman-Maldonado S.H.,National Institute for Forestry | Herrera-Hernandez M.G.,National Institute for Forestry
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Industries discard the pulp (endocarp), and peel (exocarp) of xoconostle or prickly pear fruit cultivar 'Cuaresmeño' (Opuntia matudae) as waste and utilize the flesh (mesocarp) which is the edible portion. Soluble phenols, vitamin C and betalain content of the different structures from three production sites in Mexico was determined as well as the characterization of simple phenols and antioxidant capacity. Soluble phenols of peel (840-863 mg GAE/100 g, DWB) were almost similar to that of flesh (919-986 mg GAE/100 g, dry weigh basis); meanwhile, ascorbic acid concentration of flesh was 2-fold higher compared to that of peel. The phenolic fraction of xoconostle structures consisted of gallic, vanillic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids; catechin, epicatechin, and vanillin were also identified by high-performance liquid chromatography - didoe array detection (HPLC-DAD). Xoconostle peel showed higher antioxidant activity compared to that of flesh (2-fold) and pulp (6-fold) and commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. There is potential to use xoconostle peel and pulp for the production of feed or food products.

Martinez-Cruz E.,National Institute for Forestry | Espitia-Rangel E.,National Institute for Forestry | Villasenor-Mir H.,National Institute for Forestry | Molina-Galan J.,Colegio de Mexico | And 3 more authors.
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2011

The influence of allelic variants of HMW Gand LMWG on viscoelastic properties of dough was evaluated in parents and 98 recombinant lines derived from the crosses Rebeca F2000 × Verano S91 and Galvez M87 × Bacanora T88. Genotypes were grown at Roque, Guanajuato during the Spring-Summer of 2008. Studied traits were mixing time, mixing stability and over-mixing tolerance, general strength of the dough and tenacity/extensibility ratio. HMWG alleles 1, 2*, 17 + 18 and 5 + 10 favored the quality of the dough and variants 2 + 12 and 7 + 9 were associated with low levels of gluten strength. A 7 + 9 allele was associated with genotypes prone to form tenacious dough. Alleles Glu-A3c, Glu-A3e, Glu-B3g and Glu-B3h from the cross Rebeca F2000 × Verano S91 affected positively the quality of gluten, while allelic variants Glu-A3b, Glu-B3h and Glu-D3c in the cross Galvez M87 × Bacanora T88 were associated with higher quality standards and its counterparts Glu-A3c, Glu-B3j and Glu-D3b were associated to lower quality parameters. Results also shown interaction among loci, hence breeders need to be aware not only of the effect of individual alleles but also its interaction. © 2011 American Physical Society.

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