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Wijnhoven T.M.,World Health Organization | Van Raaij J.M.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Van Raaij J.M.,Wageningen University | Spinelli A.,National Institute of Health | And 15 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has established the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) to monitor changes in overweight in primary-school children. The aims of this paper are to present the anthropometric results of COSI Round 2 (2009/2010) and to explore changes in body mass index (BMI) and overweight among children within and across nine countries from school years 2007/2008 to 2009/2010.Results: At Round 2, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity; WHO definitions) ranged from 18% to 57% among boys and from 18% to 50% among girls; 6 - 31% of boys and 5 - 21% of girls were obese. Southern European countries had the highest overweight prevalence. Between rounds, the absolute change in mean BMI (range: from -0.4 to +0.3) and BMI-for-age Z-scores (range: from -0.21 to +0.14) varied statistically significantly across countries. The highest significant decrease in BMI-for-age Z-scores was found in countries with higher absolute BMI values and the highest significant increase in countries with lower BMI values. The highest significant decrease in overweight prevalence was observed in Italy, Portugal and Slovenia and the highest significant increase in Latvia and Norway.Methods. Using cross-sectional nationally representative samples of 6-9-year-olds, BMI, anthropometric Z-scores and overweight prevalence were derived from measured weight and height. Significant changes between rounds were assessed using variance and t-tests analyses.Conclusions: Changes in BMI and prevalence of overweight over a two-year period varied significantly among European countries. It may be that countries with higher prevalence of overweight in COSI Round 1 have implemented interventions to try to remedy this situation. © 2014 Wijnhoven et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Vitrai J.,National Institute for Health Development | Varsanyi P.,National Institute for Health Development | Bakacs M.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science
Lege Artis Medicinae | Year: 2015

Background - The Global Burden of Disease Study has been publishing its reports since the early 1990's. The last one from 2010 covers 291 diseases, and 67 risk factors for 187 countries. Aims - Presenting examples of the Hungarian health burden status the authors advocate the use this unique data source. Methods - The authors downloaded the 1990 and 2010 data for Hungary from the Global Burden of Disease Study website. To quantify the economic burden they calculated the change in GDP related to the absence from work as a consequence of risks and diseases. Results - In the publication the authors presented some of the versatile utilization methods of the GBD data and the data visualization tools available on GDB's website. In 2010 the DALY for Hungary was 3,714,900 years which is the 84% of the country's DALY in 1990. The most Years Lived by Disability was caused by musculoskeletal disorders (YLD: 28.4%), while cardiovascular and circulatory diseases caused the most Years of Life Lost (YLL: 40.3%). In 2010 the dietary risk was the leading risk factors in Hungary accountable for 840 thousand of life years lost which economic cost was over 950 milliard Hungarian forints. Conclusions - The use of the result provided by the Global Burden of Disease Study can significantly contribute for planning and evaluating interventions to promote healthy lifestyle, to advance supporting living conditions, and to distribute health care capacity efficiently. © 2015 LAM.


Speijers G.,General Health Effects Toxicity and Safety Food | Bottex B.,Scientific Committee and Advisory Forum Unit | Dusemund B.,German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment | Lugasi A.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2010

This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified by their scientific (binomial) name, in most cases down to the subspecies level or lower. (ii) Adequate characterization and description of the botanical parts and preparation methodology used is needed. Safety of a botanical ingredient cannot be assumed only relying on the long-term safe use of other preparations of the same botanical. (iii) Because of possible adulterations, misclassifications, replacements or falsifications, and restorations, establishment of adequate quality control is necessary. (iv) The strength of the evidence underlying concerns over a botanical ingredient should be included in the safety assessment. (v) The matrix effect should be taken into account in the safety assessment on a case-by-case basis. (vi) Adequate data and methods for appropriate exposure assessment are often missing. (vii) Safety regulations concerning toxic contaminants have to be complied with. The application of the guidance approach can result in the conclusion that safety can be presumed, that the botanical ingredient is of safety concern, or that further data are needed to assess safety. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.


Hidvegi T.,Petz County Teaching Hospital | Hetyesi K.,Petz County Teaching Hospital | Biro L.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science | Nadas J.,Bajcsy Zsilinszky Hospital | Jermendy G.,Bajcsy Zsilinszky Hospital
Bratislava Medical Journal | Year: 2012

Background: Metabolic syndrome occurs more often among people living in poorer social conditions. The health status of the largest minority ethnic group in Hungary lags in many aspects behind that of the general population. Methods: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome a screening was initiated in the city of Gyor among subjects aged 20-70 years who declared themselves as Gypsy. Subjects with known diabetes and cardiovascular disease were excluded. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the ATP-III criteria. Results: Among the 77 individuals screened (35 men, 42 women, age 46.9 ± 10.6 years, × ± SD) diabetes mellitus was found in 14 cases (18.2 %), and pre-diabetes (impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) could be diagnosed in further 14 cases (18.2 %). Individual components of the metabolic syndrome occurred as follows: hypertension in 47 subjects (61.0 %), abnormal waist circumference in 40 individuals (51.9 %), abnormal HDL-cholesterol in 39 cases (50.6 %), abnormal triglycerides in 35 individuals (45.5 %) and abnormal fasting blood glucose in 15 subjects (19.5 %). Within the cohort metabolic syndrome could be diagnosed in 39 individuals (50.6 %) without a signifi cant gender difference (males 20/35 = 57.1 %; women: 19/42 = 45.2 %, p>0.05). Conclusion: The occurrence of metabolic syndrome and that of glucose intolerance is high among adult Gypsy people in Hungary. In order to recognise cardio-metabolic risks and to prevent their cardiovascular consequences, continuous health promotion and adequate medical care should be provided for the Gypsy population in Hungary.


Gyore-Kis G.,Szent Istvan University | Deak K.,Szent Istvan University | Lugasi A.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science | Csur-Vargaa A.,Szent Istvan University | Helyes L.,Szent Istvan University
Acta Alimentaria | Year: 2012

A three years (2008, 2009, and 2011) open field experiment was conducted to study the effect of growing methods (organic and conventional) on the tomato yield components (Brix°, carbohydrate, organic acid, lycopene, and total polyphenols). Significantly higher Brix°, carbohydrate-, and lycopene content was found in conventional production. In spite of this, total phenolic content of tomato fruits was significantly higher in organic production. Our experiences show that it is probable, that the techniques used in the cultivation of organic crops-no artificial nutrients-could activate natural defence mechanisms in tomato plants, by increasing content of total polyphenol in the fruits.


Kovacs V.A.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science | Gabor A.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science | Fajcsak Z.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science | Martos E.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science
International Journal of Pediatric Obesity | Year: 2010

Objective. This paper was designed to evaluate the role of waist circumference (WC) in identification of children with high blood pressure. Methods. Cross-sectional data on body mass index (BMI), WC and blood pressure (BP) were analyzed in 3 678 children (1 849 boys; 11.3 ± 2.3 years) who participated in the LEARN study. Results. Prevalence of abdominal obesity (WC ≥90th percentile) in normal weight (n 2 982), overweight (n 528) and obese (n 168) children were 3.7%, 51.7% and 89.9%, respectively. Systolic BP (SBP) was higher in children with abdominal obesity compared with those with normal WC (p < 0.01) both in normal and in overweight BMI categories. Similar results were found for diastolic BP (DBP) in normal weight girls (p 0.032) and overweight boys (p 0.04). WC was significantly correlated with SBP and DPB in all BMI categories, even after adjustment for age and BMI. Despite these findings, no significant odds ratio (OR) of prehypertension or hypertension for abdominal obesity was found in the normal weight category. On the contrary, in overweight children, prevalence of prehypertension (OR 1.42 [1.1; 1.8]) and hypertension (OR 1.35 [1.1; 1.7]) was higher among abdominal obese children. Similarly, the prevalence of prehypertension was almost two-times higher among obese children with abdominal obesity (11.8% vs. 22.5%); however, no significant OR was found. Conclusions. The ability of WC to detect high-risk normal weight children is controversial. The additional measure of WC among overweight children seems to be relevant in identifying those at increased risk of high BP. Further research with a larger sample size is required in the obese group. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.


Pek Z.,Szent Istvan University | Szuvandzsiev P.,Szent Istvan University | Nemenyi A.,Szent Istvan University | Helyes L.,Szent Istvan University | Lugasi A.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science
HortScience | Year: 2011

During the vine ripening of tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L.), the change in antioxidant content and color was studied under two different solar exposures. An experiment was carried out in 2008 and 2009 to determine how color evolution, surface temperature, and antioxidant content of tomato fruits were influenced by fruit position and exposure on trellised tomato plants. Trellised rows were oriented so that non-shaded fruits were subjected to full solar irradiation from 0900 HR to 1600 HR, whereas shaded fruits were completely shaded during the same time period. A significant difference (P = 0.001) between fruit surface temperatures of shaded or non-shaded fruits was observed. The more direct solar irradiation the fruits were exposed to, the higher the fruit surface temperatures increased. At 1400 HR, only the average temperature of non-shaded fruits was significantly higher (7.0 and 9.3 °C in 2008 and 2009, respectively) than the air temperature. At the end of the ripening process, color change of non-shaded fruits showed significantly higher CIELab hue compared with shaded fruits. A close negative correlation (R2 = 0.51) was detected between the hue color parameters and the cumulative fruit surface-air temperature difference of non-shaded fruits, but in the case of shaded fruits, there was only a weak (R2 = 0.29) correlation. Solar exposure had a great effect on the antioxidant content of tomato fruits. A higher fruit surface temperature resulted in significantly less lycopene and more polyphenols and ascorbic acid content in tomato fruits.


Lugasi A.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science | Hovari J.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science | Kadar G.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science | Denes F.,Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Acta Alimentaria | Year: 2011

For prevention of non-infectious diseases such as cancer, and cardiovascular disorders consumption of more and more fruits and vegetables is highly advised. Fruits of Ribes and Rubus species are very popular in Hungary. Antioxidant properties of these fruits are well known, but the values of the characteristics depend on several factors including species, cultivars, soil and climate conditions, water and nutrition supply, and so on. Phenolics in several cultivars of raspberry, blackberry and currants grown in Hungary were measured. Total polyphenols and anthocyanins were detected by spectrophotometric methods while flavonoids including apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin and also ellagic acid were quantified by RP-HPLC technique. Total polyphenol contents of raspberry (yellow and red cultivars), blackberry and currants (white, red and black cultivars) were 219, 244, 379, 333, 192 and 533 mg/100 g, respectively. The concentrations of anthocyanins in the same order were 1.0, 41.9, 145, 0.2, 46 and 354 mg/100 g. Apigenin, luteolin and kaempferol could not been detected in any of the samples. Ellagic acid (2.0 to 23.7 mg/100 g) could be measured in white and red raspberries, in blackberries, and in some red and white currant cultivars. Quercetin could be detected in all berry species ranging from 0.1 to 14.4 mg/100 g. Measurable amount of myricetin was observed only in black currant cultivars between 1.5 and 7.7 mg/100 g. Polyphenols including flavonoids and anthocyanins in berry fruits are important forms of natural antioxidants. These molecules play essential role in the prevention of diseases in the pathomechanism of which free radicals are involved. Berry fruits are good sources of antioxidants consumed either in fresh or in processed forms because of great susceptibility of polyphenols to heat and other physicochemical processes.


Pek Z.,Szent Istvan University | Helyes L.,Szent Istvan University | Lugasi A.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science
HortScience | Year: 2010

Tomato fruit ripening is a complex, genetically programmed process that culminates in dramatic changes in texture, color, flavor, and aroma of the fruit flesh. The characteristic pigmentation of red ripe tomato fruit is the result of the de novo synthesis of carotenoids, mainly lycopene and β-carotene, which are associated with the change in fruit color from green to red as chloroplasts are transformed to chromoplasts. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ripening conditions on color development and antioxidant content. Detached tomato fruit stored at 15 and 30 °C and vine-ripened fruits were studied to characterize the ripening process by Hue (8) index (CIELab color system), which is strongly influenced by the circumstances of ripening. Total polyphenols, ascorbic acid, and lycopene content of tomato fruits were analyzed at the end of the experiment. Changes in the color of fruit stored at 15 °C and vine-ripened fruit showed significantly higher a* compared with fruit stored at 30 °C. Storage temperature influenced positively ascorbic acid and negatively lycopene content, whereas total polyphenols did not show differences among the different ripening conditions.


Helyes L.,Szent Istvan University | Lugasi A.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science | Pek Z.,Szent Istvan University
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2012

A 2-year (2007 and 2008) open-field experiment was conducted to study the effects of irrigation on the yield parameters and main antioxidant components (lycopene, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid) of processing tomato. Two different treatments were applied: some plants were regularly irrigated, and some had their irrigation cut off 30 days before harvest. Both groups were compared with a rainfed control. Daily irrigation volume was calculated from the average daily temperature to reach optimum water supply. Fruits were harvested at the red-ripe maturity stage. The irrigated plants gave a significantly higher yield, and rainfed plants showed a yield loss. Irrigation had a greater effect on the average fruit weight than on fruit number. A seasonal effect was also remarkable, but was not as strong as that of irrigation. A better water supply caused a lower Brix number than that of the rainfed control. In both years, the antioxidant concentrations in tomato fruit showed a decrease with irrigation, except for the ascorbic acid content.

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