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Indrio F.,University of Bari | Riezzo G.,National Institute For Digestive Diseases Irccs Saverio Of Bellis | Cavallo L.,University of Bari | Mauro A.D.,University of Bari | Francavilla R.,University of Bari
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2011

To provide an overview on the role of gut immunity, nervous system and motility patterns in the development of feeding intolerance in newborns. Maturation of the GI is important not only for digestion and absorption, but for endocrine and exocrine function as well. There is little data available about the development of the motility function and of the mucosal barrier of the human gut, and in particular about the motility patterns and mucosal changes in newborns during early days of life. It is known that functional maturation of the gastrointestinal tract is quite different over time with respect to its anatomical development. Besides, the gastrointestinal tract through innate and specific immunologic factors, acts as a defense against ingested antigens. In addition to the mucous membrane integrity and digestion, numerous specific immunologic cells and mediators orchestrate such defensive mechanisms. In case of food antigens, the outcome is usually in favor of tolerance. Defects in that barrier, however, can lead to the development of aberrant immunologic responses, including hypersensitivity reactions. It is obvious that an appropriate feeding regimen during early infancy is in favor of food tolerance. However, in addition to genetic predisposition, development of tolerance is facilitated by an adequate gut barrier (immune or nonimmune), well-coordinated GI motility and nervous network, and appropriate food regimen. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Indrio F.,University of Bari | Riezzo G.,National Institute For Digestive Diseases Irccs Saverio Of Bellis | Raimondi F.,University of Naples Federico II | Bisceglia M.,Ospedale San Giovanni di Dio | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2011

Background: Young infants are frequently affected by uncomplicated regurgitation that may persist despite dietetic and conservative interventions. On this basis, we studied the putative effects of probiotics on the frequency of regurgitation and gastric emptying time in infants with functional gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Patients and methods Forty-two infants with regurgitation were randomized to assume Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 at a dose of 1×10 8CFU per day and placebo for 30days. The episodes of regurgitation were recorded by the parents each day. Gastric emptying time was recorded using real-time ultrasound at baseline and at the end of the study. Twenty-one infants without regurgitation were enroled to compare anthropometric and physiological parameters before the intervention diet. Results Thirty-four infants completed the study (19 infants receiving probiotics and 15 placebo).At baseline, the whole group of infants was similar to the control group as regards anthropometric and physiological data. The median fasting antral area was significantly reduced, (P=0·01) the delta in gastric emptying rate was significantly increased (P=0·01) and the median episodes per day of regurgitation was reduced (, P<0·001) in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group. In the whole group, the frequency of regurgitation and the basal antral area showed a positive correlation (r=0·53, P=0·004). Conclusions: In infants with functional GER, L. reuteri DSM 17938 reduce gastric distension and accelerate gastric emptying. In addition, this probiotic strain seems to diminish the frequency of regurgitation. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2010 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Source

Russo F.,National Institute For Digestive Diseases Irccs Saverio Of Bellis | Linsalata M.,National Institute For Digestive Diseases Irccs Saverio Of Bellis | Clemente C.,National Institute For Digestive Diseases Irccs Saverio Of Bellis | Chiloiro M.,National Institute For Digestive Diseases Irccs Saverio Of Bellis | And 4 more authors.
Nutrition Research | Year: 2012

Apart from the intestinal environment, inulin induces physiological effects, which includes a reduction in glucose and lipid concentrations and modulation of gastrointestinal motility through the release of different peptides. We hypothesized that inulin-enriched pasta may also improve small intestine permeability in relation to zonulin and glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) levels in healthy young subjects. Twenty healthy, young male volunteers completed a randomized, double-blind crossover study consisting of a 2-week run-in period and two 5-week study periods (11% inulin-enriched or control pasta), with an 8-week washout period in between. The intestinal barrier function was assessed by lactulose-mannitol excretion in urine. Zonulin values and GLP-2 release were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the inulin group, the urinary lactulose recovery was significantly lower than the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in urinary mannitol levels between groups. Accordingly, the lactulose-mannitol excretion ratio was significantly decreased in the inulin-enriched pasta group compared with the other 2 groups. The inulin-enriched pasta group had significantly lower zonulin serum values and significantly higher GLP-2 basal values when compared with the baseline and control pasta groups. The dietary use of inulin-enriched pasta preserves intestinal mucosal barrier functioning and modulates circulating levels of zonulin and GLP-2, suggesting that prebiotics could be used in the prevention of gastrointestinal diseases and metabolic disorders. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Russo F.,Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry | Riezzo G.,National Institute For Digestive Diseases Irccs Saverio Of Bellis | Chiloiro M.,National Institute For Digestive Diseases Irccs Saverio Of Bellis | De Michele G.,National Institute For Digestive Diseases Irccs Saverio Of Bellis | And 5 more authors.
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2010

Different lines of evidence suggest that higher intake of fiber may somehow protect against metabolic syndrome. The prebiotic inulin has widely been studied in relation to its putative beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. Therefore, adding inulin to diet may be a suitable strategy to prevent metabolic syndrome. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the daily consumption of inulin-enriched pasta on lipid and glucose metabolism as well as on gastrointestinal motility in young healthy subjects. Methods. Twenty-two healthy young male volunteers entered a randomized double blind cross-over study consisting of a 2-weeks run-in period, two 5-weeks study periods (11% inulin-enriched or control pasta), and an 8-weeks wash-out period in between. Serum lipid and glucose concentrations were evaluated by routine biochemical analyses. Gastric emptying time and electrical activity were non-invasively evaluated by ultrasound and electrogastrography. Data were analyzed by Friedman Repeated Measures ANOVA test. Results. Significant differences among baseline and the treatment group were found for HDL-cholesterol (p=0.004), total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio (p=0.006), triglycerides (p=0.04), fasting glucose level (p=0.044), fructosamine (p=0.0478), HbA1c (p=0.04), and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) (p=0.045). The gastric emptying, expressed as final emptying time, was found significantly delayed in the group that assumed inulin-enriched pasta (p=0.008). Conclusions. Inulin-enriched pasta improved lipidic and glicidic metabolism as well as the insulin resistance in healthy young subjects. In addition, it delayed the gastric emptying time which may represent the physiological counterpart of its metabolic effects. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

Orlando A.,National Institute For Digestive Diseases Irccs Saverio Of Bellis | Linsalata M.,National Institute For Digestive Diseases Irccs Saverio Of Bellis | Russo F.,National Institute For Digestive Diseases Irccs Saverio Of Bellis
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2016

Vitamin K (VK), an essential nutrient associated with the clotting cascade, has also been demonstrated to have anticancer properties in various cancer cells including colon cancer cells. Also probiotics have gained interest as potential anticancer agents. Among them, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L.GG) has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and polyamine biosynthesis as well as to induce apoptosis in different human gastrointestinal cancer cells. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms involved in these actions are not completely elucidated. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to evaluate in three differently graded human colon cancer cells (namely Caco-2, HT-29 and SW480) the effects of increasing VK1 concentrations, administered alone or in combination with viable L.GG, on the cell proliferation evaluated by MTT test, apoptosis investigated by Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the percentage of the apoptotic cells, and the cell cycle evaluated by MUSE cell analyzer. Both VK1 and L.GG administered alone up to 72 h, caused inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis and the cell cycle arrest in all the tested colon cancer cells. When VK1 and L.GG were co-administered, the addition of increasing VK1 concentrations potentiated the probiotic antiproliferative effect in a dose-dependent manner, being also related to the individual features of each cell line. The effect was more evident in Caco-2 and HT-29 cells compared to the less differentiated SW480. The enhanced antiproliferative efficacy due to co-administration of L.GG and VK1 could represent a suitable option in a functional food strategy for cancer growth inhibition and chemoprevention. Source

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