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De Wael K.,National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology
Science and Justice | Year: 2012

A number of dyed acrylic and acetate fibre samples were examined with plane polarized light on their dichroic behavior by optical light microscopy (OLM) and microspectrophotometry with plane polarized light (MSP-PPL). It was found that most of these low birefringent fibres possess weak dichroic effects that are very hard to observe with microscopy. However, using MSP-PPL, the linear dichroism could be measured. A comparison between the dichroic effects found for the same disperse dyes on triacetate (TrAc), diacetate (Ac), polyester (PES) and polyamide (PA) shows that the linear dichroism follows the order: PA >PES>> TrAc, Ac. © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Source


Vanhove W.,Ghent University | Van Damme P.,Ghent University | Meert N.,National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology
Forensic Science International | Year: 2011

Judiciary currently faces difficulties in adequately estimating the yield of illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The latter data is required in penalization which is based on the profits gained. A full factorial experiment in which two overhead light intensities, two plant densities and four varieties were combined in the indoor cultivation of cannabis (Cannabis spp.) was used to reveal cannabis drug yield and quality under each of the factor combinations. Highest yield was found for the Super Skunk and Big Bud varieties which also exhibited the highest concentrations of Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Results show that plant density and light intensity are additive factors whereas the variety factor significantly interacts with both plant density and light intensity factors. Adequate estimations of yield of illicit, indoor cannabis plantations can only be made if upon seizure all factors considered in this study are accounted for. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Heudt L.,University of Liege | Heudt L.,National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology | Debois D.,University of Liege | Zimmerman T.A.,University of Liege | And 5 more authors.
Forensic Science International | Year: 2012

Inkjet ink analysis is the best way to discriminate between printed documents, or even though more difficult, to connect an inkjet printed document with a brand or model of printers. Raman spectroscopy and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) have been demonstrated as powerful tools for dyes and pigments analysis, which are ink components. The aim of this work is to evaluate the aforementioned techniques for inkjet inks analysis in terms of discriminating power, information quality, and nondestructive capability. So, we investigated 10 different inkjet ink cartridges (primary colors and black), 7 from the HP manufacturer and one each from Epson, Canon and Lexmark. This paper demonstrates the capabilities of three methods: Raman spectroscopy, LDMS and MALDI-MS. Raman spectroscopy, as it is preferable to try the nondestructive approach first, is successfully adapted to the analysis of color printed documents in most cases. For analysis of color inkjet inks by LDMS, we show that a MALDI matrix (9-aminoacridine, 9AA) is needed to desorb and to ionize dyes from most inkjet inks (except Epson inks). Therefore, a method was developed to apply the 9AA MALDI matrix directly onto the piece of paper while avoiding analyte spreading. The obtained mass spectra are very discriminating and lead to information about ink additives and paper compositions. Discrimination of black inkjet printed documents is more difficult because of the common use of carbon black as the principal pigment. We show for the first time the possibility to discriminate between two black-printed documents coming from different, as well as from the same, manufacturers. Mass spectra recorded from black inks in positive ion mode LDMS detect polyethylene glycol polymers which have characteristic mass distributions and end groups. Moreover, software has been developed for rapid and objective comparison of the low mass range of these positive mode LDMS spectra which have characteristic unknown peaks. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


De Wael K.,National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology | Lepot L.,National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology
Science and Justice | Year: 2011

A number of dyed cellulosic fibres were examined with plane polarized light on their dichroic behavior by microscopy and microspectrophotometry (MSP-PPL). Significant dichroic effects (mostly hypochromic effects and hypsochromic bands shifts) were reported. The effect is related to the chemical structure: some dye structures always possess dichroism (azo, stilbene, thiazole and oxazine), some dyes demonstrate sometimes dichroic effects (anthraquinoid, indigoid) while other structures never demonstrate dichroic effects (sulphur, diphenylmethanes, triarylmethanes, phthalocyanines). In some cases a different dichroic behavior was found for the same dyes applied on cotton and on viscose. © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Source


De Wael K.,National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology | Vanden Driessche T.,National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology
Science and Justice | Year: 2011

A number of dyed polyamide, wool and silk samples were examined with plane polarized light on their dichroic behavior by optical light microscopy (OLM) and microspectrophotometry with plane polarized light (MSP-PPL). It was found that most of these acid dyed peptidic fibres possess dichroism, but these are weaker than the effects previously described for polyester fibres. The small effects may be not observed, especially for wool, but these can be measured using MSP-PPL.In the three peptidic fibre classes, for the first time, a so called " inverse dichroism" is observed which appears in the absorption spectra as a hyperchromic effect. © 2010 Forensic Science Society. Source

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