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Richards C.,University of Queensland | Kjaernes U.,National Institute for Consumer Research | Vik J.,Center for Rural Research
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2016

The concept of food security is often anchored in popular understandings of the challenge to produce and supply enough food. However, decades of policies for intensive agriculture have not alleviated hunger and malnutrition, with an absence of food security featuring in both economically developing and developed nations. Despite perceptions that the economic growth in advanced, capitalist societies will ensure freedom from hunger, this is not universal across so-called 'wealthy nations'. To explore the dynamics of food security in economically developed countries, this paper considers institutional approaches to domestic food security primarily through responses to poverty and welfare entitlements, and, secondarily, through food relief. Through the lens of social entitlements to food and their formation under various expressions of welfare capitalism, we highlight how the specific institutional settings of two economically developed nations, Australia and Norway, respond to uncertain or insufficient access to food. Whilst Norway's political agenda on agricultural support, food pricing regulation and universal social security support offers a robust, although indirect, safety net in ensuring entitlements to food, Australia's neoliberal trajectory means that approaches to food security are ad hoc and rely on a combination of self-help, charitable and market responses. Despite its extensive food production Australia appears less capable of ensuring food security for all its inhabitants compared to the highly import-dependent Norway. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Borch A.,National Institute for Consumer Research
Addiction Research and Theory | Year: 2012

Drawing on a qualitative study of Norwegian households (couples and singles) with and without reported gambling problems, this article explores how household members perceive their own gambling. The research indicates that different households subscribe to different views of gambling. Whereas households without any reported gambling problems perceived gambling according to the market view, which suggests that gambling is like any other product on the market, households with reported gambling problems articulated views corresponding with a medical view, according to which gambling is seen as a dangerous realm of addiction. Religious views were also articulated, although they were less pronounced. Implications for the understanding of risk and help-seeking behaviour are discussed. © 2012 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.

Skuland S.E.,National Institute for Consumer Research
Appetite | Year: 2015

The article examines the constraints on healthy eating by exploring whether barriers such as taste, competence, time, price, quality and limited selection reduce consumption of vegetables and fish among Norwegians. In order to understand the socio-economic gradient of healthy diets, the study examines how these barriers are related to specific class positions. Regular consumption of both fish and vegetables are recommended by health authorities, and they are broadly perceived as healthy foods by Norwegians. Nevertheless, more than half of the population consumes vegetables less frequently than daily, and the average consumption of fish is far below the recommended two to three dinner portions of fish on a weekly basis. Informed by Bourdieu's theories of social class, this article argues for two overarching barriers related to food consumption, food knowledge and perceived food quality by consumers, and it finds that barriers are tied to scarcity of cultural, economic and social capital. A survey of 2000 respondents subjected to multiple linear regression analysis and factor analysis (PCA) provides the evidence for this study. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Leroy F.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Scholliers P.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Amilien V.,National Institute for Consumer Research
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2015

Fermented meats are often studied by food technologists and microbiologists with respect to their safety and quality properties. They are archetypal traditional foods, since they have originated as the products of empirical methods for meat preservation in a distant past and have evolved over many centuries towards a large assortment of varieties with strong territorial and socio-cultural connotations. Yet, an unambiguous definition of "traditional foods" is problematic and largely context-dependent, often being institutionalized and applied in a multitude of conflicting discourses by different actors. Contemporary food markets frequently rely on the seemingly oxymoronic concept of innovation-through-tradition, possibly as a manner to deal with a threatening and globalizing environment of change. The present paper focuses on the complex notion of "traditional fermented meats", following a four-dimensional hermeneutic setup (including a temporal, geographic, know-how, and meaning component). It gives an overview of elements of innovation and habits that are pertinent to meat fermentation and its technological and cultural track record. Such elements include the significance of time frames and localized production, as well as of artisan practice and the attribution of (cultural) meaning. Of particular interest is the reliance on "typical" microbial communities for fermentation. In addition, the boundaries of tradition and innovation in fermented meats are explored, with respect to what is acceptable to industry and consumers. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Aarset B.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Borgen S.O.,National Institute for Consumer Research
Aquaculture | Year: 2015

In the pioneering period (1970s) of Norwegian salmon and trout aquaculture, the biological knowledge underlying this industry evolved in an institutional world of open science. Universities developed novel breeding techniques, and small grow out mom-and-pop farms implemented them. Eyed eggs were generic and standardized products, and traded at the lowest possible cost. As an eyed egg, the fry and in particular the eyes are visible through the membrane. The interplay between the regimes of open science and proprietary science has changed significantly in salmon aquaculture over the last two decades. One aspect of this change is that husbandry breeding has become more industrialized and subsequently more controlled by large, specialized and capital intensive breeding corporations. This paper explores this development from the perspectives of process-oriented institutional theory. We identify critical junctures in the coevolution of the breeding and grow-out sectors, and analyze how these junctures structure and change the direction of industrial and economic development. Ultimately, the generic, standardized and undervalued eyed eggs were subject to revaluation by the novel dominant international actors in the Atlantic salmon industry. We primarily draw data from interviews with core actors and informants at relevant universities, breeding companies and governmental agencies, as well as from white papers and other secondary material. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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