Laitala K.,National Institute for Consumer Research |
Laitala K.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Consumer Studies | Year: 2014
Consumer decisions on clothing disposal are important from an environmental point of view, as they have an effect on the lifespan of clothing, as well as the potential for reuse and recycling. This article summarizes what is known about consumers' clothing disposal behaviour based on empirical literature published during the past 30 years. The goal of this synthesis is to integrate empirical research, find generalizable results, evaluate the used research methods and identify central issues for future research. Most clothing disposal studies concentrate on disposal channels, behavioural motivations, disposal reasons and demographics of consumers that behave in specified ways. Many consumers prefer to deliver clothing for reuse rather than to dispose of them, but convenience is paramount. Common disposal reasons for apparel were wear and tear, poor fit and fashion or boredom, in addition to lack of storage space. Survey methods are most common, which indicates the need of other research designs that preferably include the clothing items in method triangulation. Studied samples are dominated by young women and students, and research on more heterogeneous samples is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Aarset B.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences |
Borgen S.O.,National Institute for Consumer Research
Aquaculture | Year: 2015
In the pioneering period (1970s) of Norwegian salmon and trout aquaculture, the biological knowledge underlying this industry evolved in an institutional world of open science. Universities developed novel breeding techniques, and small grow out mom-and-pop farms implemented them. Eyed eggs were generic and standardized products, and traded at the lowest possible cost. As an eyed egg, the fry and in particular the eyes are visible through the membrane. The interplay between the regimes of open science and proprietary science has changed significantly in salmon aquaculture over the last two decades. One aspect of this change is that husbandry breeding has become more industrialized and subsequently more controlled by large, specialized and capital intensive breeding corporations. This paper explores this development from the perspectives of process-oriented institutional theory. We identify critical junctures in the coevolution of the breeding and grow-out sectors, and analyze how these junctures structure and change the direction of industrial and economic development. Ultimately, the generic, standardized and undervalued eyed eggs were subject to revaluation by the novel dominant international actors in the Atlantic salmon industry. We primarily draw data from interviews with core actors and informants at relevant universities, breeding companies and governmental agencies, as well as from white papers and other secondary material. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Richards C.,University of Queensland |
Kjaernes U.,National Institute for Consumer Research |
Vik J.,Center for Rural Research
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2016
The concept of food security is often anchored in popular understandings of the challenge to produce and supply enough food. However, decades of policies for intensive agriculture have not alleviated hunger and malnutrition, with an absence of food security featuring in both economically developing and developed nations. Despite perceptions that the economic growth in advanced, capitalist societies will ensure freedom from hunger, this is not universal across so-called 'wealthy nations'. To explore the dynamics of food security in economically developed countries, this paper considers institutional approaches to domestic food security primarily through responses to poverty and welfare entitlements, and, secondarily, through food relief. Through the lens of social entitlements to food and their formation under various expressions of welfare capitalism, we highlight how the specific institutional settings of two economically developed nations, Australia and Norway, respond to uncertain or insufficient access to food. Whilst Norway's political agenda on agricultural support, food pricing regulation and universal social security support offers a robust, although indirect, safety net in ensuring entitlements to food, Australia's neoliberal trajectory means that approaches to food security are ad hoc and rely on a combination of self-help, charitable and market responses. Despite its extensive food production Australia appears less capable of ensuring food security for all its inhabitants compared to the highly import-dependent Norway. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Rossvoll E.H.,Norwegian Institute of Food |
Ueland O.,Norwegian Institute of Food |
Hagtvedt T.,Norwegian Institute of Food |
Jacobsen E.,National Institute for Consumer Research |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2012
Traditionally, consumer food safety survey responses have been classified as either "right" or "wrong" and food handling practices that are associated with high risk of infection have been treated in the same way as practices with lower risks. In this study, a risk-based method for consumer food safety surveys has been developed, and HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) methodology was used for selecting relevant questions. We conducted a nationally representative Web-based survey (n = 2,008), and to fit the self-reported answers we adjusted a risk-based grading system originally developed for observational studies. The results of the survey were analyzed both with the traditional "right" and "wrong" classification and with the risk-based grading system. The results using the two methods were very different. Only 5 of the 10 most frequent food handling violations were among the 10 practices associated with the highest risk. These 10 practices dealt with different aspects of heat treatment (lacking or insufficient), whereas the majority of the most frequent violations involved storing food at room temperature for too long. Use of the risk-based grading system for survey responses gave a more realistic picture of risks associated with domestic food handling practices. The method highlighted important violations and minor errors, which are performed by most people and are not associated with significant risk. Surveys built on a HACCP-based approach with risk-based grading will contribute to a better understanding of domestic food handling practices and will be of great value for targeted information and educational activities. Copyright © International Association for Food Protection.
Bugge A.B.,National Institute for Consumer Research |
Lavik R.,National Institute for Consumer Research
Food, Culture and Society | Year: 2010
Over the last decades, eating out has become an increasingly important part of everyday life in Norway. Eighty percent of Norwegians eat at least one meal away from home (excluding work or school canteen meals) every month. As with eating at home, eat-out habits are characterized by many social differentiations. Being young, male, and living in a city (particularly Oslo) were the factors most commonly associated with a higher propensity to consume meals away from the home. Recent decades have seen growing interest in foreign and ethnic foods, combined with a greater interest in culinary matters in general. Increased attention is also being given to healthy eating, with foods that are high in sugar and fat becoming a significant concern; indeed, our data indicate that around half the population prefers to avoid hamburger restaurants for reasons associated with health.This article uses data from a set of time series studies from 1991 to 2007, collected by mail, and a web survey carried out in 2006, answered by 685 respondents.The results show that eating out is a multifaceted activity, with a wide range of places to eat out, and different reasons for doing so, whether out of necessity or for pleasure. Eating out is also a form of self-representation and identity; for instance, it can be a sign of an urban lifestyle. However, eating out has not replaced the fundamental meals at home, which have been stable for years.
Borch A.,National Institute for Consumer Research |
Kjaernes U.,National Institute for Consumer Research
Journal of Consumer Policy | Year: 2016
Surveys from societies like the USA, Canada, the UK, and France suggest that 5–15% of the population have experienced “food insecurity” in the sense of not having enough food to eat due to a lack of money or other resources. The Nordic countries are among the most affluent societies in the world and it is generally assumed that food insecurity has been eradicated due to relatively low differences in wages and well-developed social security schemes. This representative web survey of food and eating in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden indicates however that food insecurity does exist in the Nordic region. In line with research from other industrialized counters, it also suggests that women, young people, single parents, and low-income group seem more at risk of experiencing food insecurity than others. These results must be regarded as preliminary, needing to be substantiated by more comprehensive studies. Moreover, there is a need to develop or use more standardized methodologies enabling comparison across countries and mapping trends over time. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Skuland S.E.,National Institute for Consumer Research
Appetite | Year: 2015
The article examines the constraints on healthy eating by exploring whether barriers such as taste, competence, time, price, quality and limited selection reduce consumption of vegetables and fish among Norwegians. In order to understand the socio-economic gradient of healthy diets, the study examines how these barriers are related to specific class positions. Regular consumption of both fish and vegetables are recommended by health authorities, and they are broadly perceived as healthy foods by Norwegians. Nevertheless, more than half of the population consumes vegetables less frequently than daily, and the average consumption of fish is far below the recommended two to three dinner portions of fish on a weekly basis. Informed by Bourdieu's theories of social class, this article argues for two overarching barriers related to food consumption, food knowledge and perceived food quality by consumers, and it finds that barriers are tied to scarcity of cultural, economic and social capital. A survey of 2000 respondents subjected to multiple linear regression analysis and factor analysis (PCA) provides the evidence for this study. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Borch A.,National Institute for Consumer Research
Addiction Research and Theory | Year: 2012
Drawing on a qualitative study of Norwegian households (couples and singles) with and without reported gambling problems, this article explores how household members perceive their own gambling. The research indicates that different households subscribe to different views of gambling. Whereas households without any reported gambling problems perceived gambling according to the market view, which suggests that gambling is like any other product on the market, households with reported gambling problems articulated views corresponding with a medical view, according to which gambling is seen as a dangerous realm of addiction. Religious views were also articulated, although they were less pronounced. Implications for the understanding of risk and help-seeking behaviour are discussed. © 2012 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.
Stamso M.A.,National Institute for Consumer Research
Housing Studies | Year: 2010
The proportion of public housing is very low in Norway. Low-income groups must therefore enter the private rental market in order to rent a dwelling. This paper focuses on tenancy conditions in the private rental market in two cities, Oslo and Trondheim, for recipients of social assistance. The analysis offers valuable insight into overall differences between social assistance recipients and other tenants. In particular, it is demonstrated that recipients of social assistance are predominantly found in the most expensive segment of the private rental market. However, within this segment the analysis is not conclusive with respect to differences in rental fees. Furthermore, in Oslo the tenancy conditions of social assistance recipients differ somewhat from the general rental market in that short-term contracts are used more often while this is not the case in Trondheim. In Oslo private landlords generally have information that the tenants receive social assistance, while they generally do not have such information in Trondheim.
Rysst M.,National Institute for Consumer Research
Scandinavian journal of public health | Year: 2010
This article explores judgemental and disciplining attitudes and ''gazes'' found in magazines and among Norwegian men and women concerning body ideals and body practices. The analysis is informed by Michel Foucault's argument on governmentality and Nikolas Rose's on governing the soul. The data consist of 20 qualitative interviews and four selected Norwegian magazines. The analysis shows a corresponding relationship of how magazines depict ideal bodies and how the informants describe good-looking bodies. The interviews also indicate that people who train (ie work out) give more detailed and clear descriptions of good-looking bodies than those who do not train. Body dissatisfaction is present among both men and women, but seems more widespread among women. Body dissatisfaction is understood as a public health issue. The analysis suggests that the Norwegian men and women in the study are governed by ''healthism'' and dominant body ideals depicted in media discourses concerning description of ideal bodies and their own body practices. In addition, the material shows widespread body dissatisfaction particularly among women, and suggests that this is a health issue and an indication of new forms of patriarchal power governing the thoughts of women and to an increasing degree also men. Having a free choice concerning body practices is thus suggested to be an illusion.