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Masciotra S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Khamadi S.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Bile E.,Global AIDS Program Ethiopia | Puren A.,National Institute for Communicable Disease | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology | Year: 2012

Background: The collection of dried blood spots (DBS) on Whatman 903 cards has facilitated for years the detection of HIV-1 in infants by DNA PCR as early as 4-6 weeks after birth in resource-limited settings (RLS), but alternate blood collection devices are proving to be necessary. Objectives: The qualitative detection of HIV-1 DNA by PCR from DBS prepared on three commercially available blood collection cards was evaluated at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and in four laboratories in Africa. Study design: DBS were prepared on Ahlstrom grade 226, Munktell TFN and Whatman 903, and stored under a variety of conditions. DBS were stored at ambient temperature (RT), 37 °C with high humidity, and -20 °C for varying lengths of time. The presence of HIV-1 DNA was tested using Roche Amplicor HIV-1 DNA (v 1.5) weekly for 4 weeks and at weeks 8 and 12 (RT and 37 °C), at weeks 4, 8, and 18 (-20 °C) of storage. DBS specimens were also tested after international shipment at RT. In addition, after nearly 3 years storage at -20 °C, DBS were also evaluated independently using the COBAS Ampliprep/TaqMan HIV-1 Qual and Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Qualitative tests. Results: HIV-1 DNA was detected equally well on the three blood collection cards regardless of storage conditions and PCR assay. Conclusions: Ahlstrom 226 and Munktell TFN papers were comparable to Whatman 903 for HIV-1 DNA detection and may be considered as optional blood collection devices in resource-limited countries. © 2012 .

Jewkes R.K.,Gender and Health Research Unit | Jewkes R.K.,University of Witwatersrand | Dunkle K.,Emory University | Nduna M.,University of Witwatersrand | And 2 more authors.
Child Abuse and Neglect | Year: 2010

Objectives: To describe prevalence of childhood experiences of adversity in rural South African youth and their associations with health outcomes. Methods: We analyzed questionnaires and blood specimens collected during a baseline survey for a cluster randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention, and also tested blood HIV and herpes simplex type 2 virus at 12- and 24-month follow up; 1,367 male and 1,415 female volunteers were recruited from 70 rural villages. Results: Both women and men before 18 had experienced physical punishment (89.3% and 94.4%), physical hardship (65.8% and 46.8%), emotional abuse (54.7% and 56.4%), emotional neglect (41.6% and 39.6%), and sexual abuse (39.1% and 16.7%). Incident HIV infections were more common in women who experienced emotional abuse (IRR 1.96, 95% CI 1.25, 3.06, p= .003), sexual abuse (IRR 1.66 95% CI 1.04, 2.63, p= .03), and physical punishment (IRR 2.13 95% CI 1.04, 4.37, p= .04). Emotional neglect in women was associated with depression (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.15, 2.88, p= .01), suicidality (aOR 5.07, 95% CI 2.07, 12.45, p< .0001), alcohol abuse (aOR 2.17, 95% CI .99, 4.72, p= .05), and incident HSV2 infections (IRR 1.62, 95% CI 1.01, 2.59, p= .04). In men emotional neglect was associated with depression (aOR 3.41, 95% CI 1.87, 6.20, p< .0001) and drug use (aOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.37, 2.88, p< .0001). Sexual abuse was associated with alcohol abuse in men (aOR 3.68, 95% CI 2.00, 6.77, p< .0001) and depression (aOR 2.16, 95% CI 1.34, 3.48, p= .002) and alcohol abuse in women (aOR 3.94, 95% CI 1.90, 8.17, p< .0001). Practice implications: Childhood exposure to adversity is very common and influences the health of women and men. All forms of adversity, emotional, physical and sexual, enhance the risk of adverse health outcomes in men and women. Prevention of child abuse need to be included as part of the HIV prevention agenda in sub-Saharan Africa. Interventions are needed to prevent emotional, sexual, and physical abuse and responses from health and social systems in Africa to psychologically support exposed children must be strengthened. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Esona M.D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Page N.A.,National Institute for Communicable Disease | Akran V.A.,Institute Pasteur Of Cote Divoire Dve | Armah G.E.,Noguchi Institute | Steele A.D.,University of Limpopo
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

During routine rotavirus surveillance projects in Cameroon and Cote d'Ivoire, 2 fecal samples collected from 2 children <5 years of age who presented with symptoms of gastroenteritis were found to give anomalous G typing results. These specimens were strongly rotavirus positive by enzyme immunoassay, displayed VP6 subgroup II specificity and long RNA electropherotypes, and were typed as rotavirus serotype G2 with monoclonal antibodies. In addition, the strains were typed as rotavirus VP7 genotype G3 and VP4 genotype P[8] by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Further investigation of the polymerase chain reaction Gtyping results with a second set of primers revealed that the specimens were not genotype G3, and both samples were sequenced to elucidate the problem. Both strains were found to be genotype G10 by nucleotide sequence. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences and phylogenetic analysis of the African G10 strains revealed that these strains are closely related to the human G10 strains that were detected during the 2001-2003 rotavirus season in Ghana. The detection of G10 rotavirus in Africa adds to the global distribution of this strain and strengthens the need to continue strain surveillance in developing countries to understand the extent of strain distribution and diversity.

Oliver S.V.,National Institute for Communicable Disease | Oliver S.V.,University of Witwatersrand | Brooke B.D.,National Institute for Communicable Disease | Brooke B.D.,University of Witwatersrand
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in Africa. It thrives in agricultural areas and has been associated with increased malaria incidence in areas under rice and maize cultivation. This effect may be due to increased adult size and abundance as a consequence of optimal larval nutrition. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of larval nutrition on the life history and expression of insecticide resistance in adults of laboratory reared An. arabiensis. Methods. Larvae drawn from an insecticide susceptible An. arabiensis strain (SENN) as well as a DDT-resistant strain (SENN-DDT) were subjected to three fasting regimes: 1 mg of food per larva offered once per day, once every second day and once every third day. Control cohorts included larvae offered 1 mg food thrice per day. The rate of larval development was compared between matched cohorts from each strain as well as between fasted larvae and their respective controls. The expression of DDT resistance/tolerance in adults was compared between the starved cohorts and their controls by strain. Factors potentially affecting variation in DDT resistance/tolerance were examined including: adult body size (wing length), knock-down resistance (kdr) status and levels of detoxification enzyme activity. Results and conclusion. Anopheles arabiensis larval development is prolonged by nutrient deprivation and adults that eclose from starved larvae are smaller and less tolerant to DDT intoxication. This effect on DDT tolerance in adults is also associated with reduced detoxification enzyme activity. Conversely, well fed larvae develop comparatively quickly into large, more DDT tolerant (SENN) or resistant (SENN-DDT) adults. This is important in those instances where cereal farming is associated with increased An. arabiensis transmitted malaria incidence, because large adult females with high teneral reserves and decreased susceptibility to insecticide intoxication may also prove to be more efficient malaria vectors. In general, larval nutrient deprivation in An. arabiensis has important implications for subsequent adults in terms of their size and relative insecticide susceptibility, which may in turn impact on their malaria vector capacity in areas where insecticide based control measures are in place. © 2013 Oliver and Brooke; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Mbulawa Z.Z.A.,University of Cape Town | Mbulawa Z.Z.A.,National Institute for Communicable Disease | Johnson L.F.,University of Cape Town | Marais D.J.,University of Cape Town | And 6 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Persistent high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and increased HR-HPV viral load are associated with the development of cancer. This study investigated the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, HIV viral load and CD4 count on the HR-HPV viral load; and also investigated the predictors of cervical abnormalities.Methods: Participants were 292 HIV-negative and 258 HIV-positive women. HR-HPV viral loads in cervical cells were determined by the real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: HIV-positive women had a significantly higher viral load for combined alpha-9 HPV species compared to HIV-negative women (median 3.9 copies per cell compared to 0.63 copies per cell, P = 0.022). This was not observed for individual HPV types. HIV-positive women with CD4 counts >350/μl had significantly lower viral loads for alpha-7 HPV species (median 0.12 copies per cell) than HIV-positive women with CD4 ≤350/μl (median 1.52 copies per cell, P = 0.008), but low CD4 count was not significantly associated with increased viral load for other HPV species. High viral loads for alpha-6, alpha-7 and alpha-9 HPV species were significant predictors of abnormal cytology in women.Conclusion: HIV co-infection significantly increased the combined alpha-9 HPV viral load in women but not viral loads for individual HPV types. High HR-HPV viral load was associated with cervical abnormal cytology. © 2014 Mbulawa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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