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Albuquerque A.C.F.,Federal University of Amazonas | Dos Santos J.L.C.,National Institute for Amazon Research | De Castro A.N.,Federal University of Amazonas
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | Year: 2015

The use of ontology presents a novel data integration resource, when centred in semantic definitions and the need for interoperability. Results from previews works indicate that ontologies can drive knowledge acquisition processes for the purpose of comprehensive, transportable machine understanding and knowledge management. Applied to the biodiversity domain, ontologies can be a valuable resource for strategic planning and its contribution toward conservation of the Amazon region. This work presents a biodiversity domain ontology developed at the National Institute for Amazonian Research (INPA) using biological data as its object of study. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Pohlit A.M.,National Institute for Amazon Research | Pohlit A.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Lopes N.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Gama R.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | And 2 more authors.
Planta Medica | Year: 2011

Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus L'Hér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10 % of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure natural ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40 % of all patents. About 25 % of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito repellent properties such as pyrethroids, N,N-diethyl-m- toluamide (DEET), (±)-p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) and dialkyl phthalates. Synergistic effects involving one or more EOs and synthetic and/or natural components were claimed in about 10 % of all patents. Scientific literature sources provide evidence for the mosquito repellency of many of the EOs and individual chemical components found in EOs used in patented repellent inventions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York. Source

Guimaraes J.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Mari R.B.,Sao Paulo State University | Marigo J.,Project BioPesca | Rosas F.C.W.,National Institute for Amazon Research | Watanabe I.,University of Sao Paulo
Microscopy Research and Technique | Year: 2012

In most anatomical studies developed with mammals, the tongue is described as highly differentiated among different species. However, studies on the tongue of aquatic mammals are still limited as compared to those on terrestrial mammals. The aim of this study was to describe the tongue morphology of the Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) using macroscopic observations, light, and scanning electron microscopy. Microscopically, the dorsal surface was covered by a keratinized stratified epithelium. Salivary gland acini were found on the middle and caudal third of the tongue. The dorsal surface was totally covered by filiform papillae with a connective tissue core and a connective tissue structure round in shape in the middle and caudal regions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Guimaraes J.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Mari R.D.B.,Paranaense University | Marigo J.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Rosas F.C.W.,National Institute for Amazon Research | Watanabe I.-S.,University of Sao Paulo
Zoological Science | Year: 2011

The importance of the tongue during feeding, and the limited information on the tongue of most aquatic mammals led us to investigate its morphological aspects in sexually immature and mature Sotalia guianensis. Six tongues were measured and photo-documented after their removal from the oral cavity. The samples were divided into rostral, middle, and caudal regions, and examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.). Sotalia guianensis tongue presented lateral grooves from the apex to the middle portion, while the anterolateral region presented marginal papillae. Histological characteristics revealed the presence of a keratinized stratified epithelium, salivary glands in the middle and caudal portions of the tongue, and filiform papillae in the caudal region. S.E.M. images revealed the presence of filiform papillae and ducts of salivary glands in the middle and caudal portions of the tongue. We can conclude that the characteristics found in this study may reflect an adaptation to changes in diet after weaning. © 2011 Zoological Society of Japan. Source

Pinto A.C.D.S.,Federal University of Amazonas | Chaves F.C.M.,Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental | Dos Santos P.A.,National Institute for Amazon Research | Nunez C.V.,National Institute for Amazon Research | And 2 more authors.
Planta Medica | Year: 2010

Piper peltatum L. is used for the treatment of inflammation, malaria, and other ailments. 4-Nerolidylcatechol (4-NC) is a valuable natural product that has important anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, and antioxidant properties. 4-NC is a component of P. peltatum and P. umbellatum extracts, which are used in cosmetics. The aim of this work was to evaluate the production of plant biomass and the production of 4-NC in roots of cultivated P. peltatum over a full life cycle. Seedlings were produced in a greenhouse and then transplanted. The weight of dry plant parts (leaves, stems, roots, and inflorescences); numbers of stems, leaves, and inflorescences; and the leaf-to-stem ratio were evaluated at intervals of 60 days after transplanting (DAT). Extracts were prepared using 1:1 ethanolchloroform and an ultrasound bath. Roots, leaves, and inflorescences contained 4-NC according to TLC photodensitometry analysis. Quantification of 4-NC in root extracts was performed using HPLCDAD analysis. Per-hectare production of 4-NC by roots was estimated based on quantitative HPLC analysis and biomass data. Optimal per-hectare yields of 4-NC were obtained by harvesting roots between 350 and 400 DAT. In this period, the average yield was 27kg 4-NC per hectare. Importantly, at the time of maximal overall production of root biomass (470 DAT), there was a decrease in the production of 4-NC (23.8kg/ha), probably due to the onset of senescence. © 2010 Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York. Source

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