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Farizo B.A.,Institute for Public Goods and Policies IPP | Joyce J.,Stockholm International Water Institute | Solino M.,National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology INIA
Land Economics | Year: 2014

One of the main issues on the research agenda regarding stated preference methods concerns the heterogeneity of preferences either within or between individuals. We present a multilevel mixed model (MMM) to capture heterogeneity in deterministic utility components, instead of simply leaving them to random components. MMM captures heterogeneity at different levels: individuals, locations, and groups of individuals sharing other characteristics. The results show that individuals' surroundings help to capture heterogeneity, and that can be controlled by specifying these aspects as predictors for this behavioral model. Therefore, MMM may contribute to the identification of the underlying structure affecting environmental decisions. (JEL D62, Q51). © 2014 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.

Solino M.,National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology INIA | Solino M.,University of Valladolid | Farizo B.A.,Institute for Public Goods and Policies IPP
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness) in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10) is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity. © 2014 Soliño, Farizo.

Kaal J.,Institute Ciencias del Patrimonio Incipit | Martinez Cortizas A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Reyes O.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Solino M.,National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology INIA
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2012

Gorse species (Ulex sp.) are ubiquitous in the shrublands of NW Spain and have the potential to become key players in an integral biofuel/biochar program in NW Spain. Here we present molecular characterization (using pyrolysis-GC/MS) of a biochar "thermosequence" obtained by laboratory heating of Ulex europaeus wood in a muffle furnace between 200 and 600°C (T CHAR). Low temperature chars (T CHAR ≤ 350°C) produced significant amounts of pyrolysis products of which the precursor biopolymer could be recognized, while high-temperature chars (T CHAR ≥ 400°C) produced mainly phenols and monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are not specific for any biopolymer. Carbohydrate could hardly be recognized at T CHAR ≥ 350°C. The thermal rearrangement of polyphenols, mainly lignin, was reflected in more detail (1) C 3-side chain shortening and probably depolymerization (T CHAR 200-350°C), (2) demethoxylation of syringyl and probably also some guaiacyl lignin (T CHAR 300-400°C), (3) elimination of virtually all remaining methoxyl groups (T CHAR 350-400°C), through dehydroxylation and demethoxylation, (4) almost complete dehydroxylation of lignin and other biopolymers (T CHAR 400-500°C), (5) progressive condensation into polyaromatic structures (T CHAR 300-500°C) and (6) partial elimination of alkyl bridges between (poly)aromatic moieties (T CHAR 450-500°C). These results were supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the same samples. We conclude that pyrolysis-GC/MS can be used as a rapid molecular screening method of gorse-derived biochar. Molecular properties elucidation is an essential part of predicting the stability and agronomical behavior of gorse-derived biochar after future implementation in soils. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Solino M.,National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology INIA | Prada A.,University of Vigo | Vazquez M.X.,University of Vigo
Journal of Forest Economics | Year: 2010

Recent issues of this journal have presented an interesting debate regarding forest fires in Galicia, Spain. This article proposes a forest-energy programme that will contribute to reducing the risk of forest fires in this Atlantic Region of Southern Europe. We apply the contingent valuation method to assess a programme whereby 10% of the electricity produced from coal, fuel oil and gas would be replaced by electricity generated in biomass power plants. The programme would begin implementation in 2005 and it would take 6 years (up to 2010) before we reach the 10% goal. The results show that Galician households are willing to pay a mean of 38 Euros per year. In addition, we have introduced an innovative procedure to detect protest responses related to the payment vehicle in a contingent valuation. Heckman's sample-selection procedure is used to analyse the WTP function. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH.

Iglesias Merchan C.,Technical University of Madrid | Diaz-Balteiro L.,Technical University of Madrid | Solino M.,National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology INIA | Solino M.,University of Valladolid
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2014

In this study a national park soundscape characterisation was contrasted with an economic estimation of the impact of noise pollution on the park visitors' perception. The main noise sources were identified and the noise-pollution levels were assessed along a pathway that is highly frequented by hikers in a natural park in the mountains of central Spain. The results showed noticeable soundscape degradation during the visitors' leisure experience (sound pressure levels increased approximately 4.5. dB from natural ambient levels). Visitors' voices and conversations were as great of a nuisance to themselves as were aircraft overflights and road traffic. Using the contingent valuation method, the willingness to pay for the financing of a programme aimed at mitigating noise in the park was estimated. The results showed that visitors would be willing to pay an entrance fee of approximately 1 euro if this noise-reduction programme were to be implemented in the park. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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