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Baributsa D.,Purdue University | Abdoulaye T.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Lowenberg-DeBoer J.,Purdue University | Dabire C.,National Institute for Agricultural Research in Niger INRAN | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2014

The Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) technology has been disseminated in 30,896 villages in 10 different countries in West and Central Africa from 2007 to 2012. Extension and supply chain development efforts were required to make the PICS technology available to millions of farmers and other users. Several research and development organizations assisted in awareness building activities to develop the market and increase access. Thousands of village and market demonstrations were implemented by field technicians and supported by media activities. Supply chain development activities were led by the private sector with some support from the project. Overall, 40-70 adults attended demonstrations in each village, among which 38% were women. Large-scale extension activities substantially increased the demand for the technology and helped establish the supply chain. More than 2.4 million triple bags were sold in the first 5 years of the project. In some countries, up to 50% of bags ordered during the first year were bought by farmers; even though village demonstrations had not yet been completed. Market building activities helped convince the private sector that there were business opportunities in buying and selling PICS bags. Bags ordered by the private sector went from 0% in 2007 to 200% in 2010, proving that it is possible to commercialize a new agricultural technology in developing countries in a relatively short time. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Moussa B.,National Institute for Agricultural Research in Niger INRAN | Abdoulaye T.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Coulibaly O.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Baributsa D.,Purdue University | Lowenberg-DeBoer J.,Purdue University
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2014

This study is based on interviews with 3456 randomly selected cowpea farmers in 322 villages in ten countries in West and Central Africa in 2010 and 2012. It uses descriptive statistics to track the trends in adoption of cowpea storage technology compared to previous studies and Firth logistic regression to identify important factors in adoption. The interviews indicate that regionally about 46% of respondents use some type of hermetic storage for their cowpeas and about 44% of the quantity of cowpea stored on farms is in hermetic containers. Both the percentage of respondents and the percentage of stored quantity fall slightly short of the 50% benchmark hypothesized. The 2010-2012 estimates compare to about 30% of cowpea quantity stored in hermetic containers in 2003-2004. Regionally, the most commonly used hermetic storage container is the triple layer Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bag. In PICS villages, local unavailability is the most common reason for not using the bags. The logit analysis shows that living in a village with PICS activities is the single most important factor explaining adoption of the technology. In six of the nine regressions participation in the demonstrations was also positive and a statistically significant determinant of adoption. For someone living in a PICS village and participating in the activities the combined effect is highly influential. In Niger such an individual would be 27% more likely than a non-participant from a non-PICS village to use PICS bags. In Senegal he or she would be 55% more likely. Some form of exposure to PICS activities or village technicians is key in adoption of the PICS technologies, though it may not be direct contact with a PICS technician. On average additional cash flow due to storage of cowpea in PICS bags is estimated at $26.58/100kg bag more than sale at harvest. © 2014. Source

Ibro G.,National Institute for Agricultural Research in Niger INRAN | Sorgho M.C.,Ministry for the Promotion of Women | Idris A.A.,Bayero University | Moussa B.,National Institute for Agricultural Research in Niger INRAN | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2014

In this study, 2741 randomly selected rural women were interviewed about their cowpea storage practices in 101 villages in Burkina Faso, Niger and Nigeria in late 2010 and early 2011. The overall objective was to determine their cowpea storage practices and identify the most important factors in choosing Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) triple bag storage. About two thirds of women said they used some type of hermetic storage. The hermetic containers included metal drums, plastic jugs, double bags and triple bags. The weighted percentage of women using PICS triple layer bags is 46%. Quantity of cowpea stored by technology showed similar patterns. Overall the percentage of cowpea in hermetic storage was 64%. The study estimated that women stored 50% of their cowpea in PICS bags. The percentage of cowpea in hermetic storage overall and in PICS bags specifically is higher for women than for men in a parallel 2012 ten-country study of mostly male household heads. In PICS villages, the women cite PICS technicians as the most important source of information. In Non-PICS villages, radio was the most important. Most women say that higher income is the major benefit of PICS. The 2009-2010 three country weighted average of the net cash flow from cowpea storage in PICS bags is $10.81/100kgbag and $39.27 per respondent. Overall, the women indicated that local unavailability was the primary constraint to use of PICS bags. The LOGIT regression analysis shows that the most important factor influencing use of PICS technology is living in a village where PICS demonstrations occurred. The regression shows that radio and the PICS technicians have key roles as information sources. Being able to attend mixed gender meetings was statistically significant only in Burkina Faso where PICS did not organize many women-only PICS activities. © 2014. Source

Baributsa D.,Purdue University | Djibo K.,World Vision International | Lowenberg-DeBoer J.,Purdue University | Moussa B.,National Institute for Agricultural Research in Niger INRAN | Baoua I.,National Institute for Agricultural Research in Niger INRAN
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2014

The dissemination of triple-layer plastic PICS bags for cowpea storage in thousands of villages across West and Central Africa has raised concerns in governmental and development agencies that farmers would simply discard the bags into the environment when they become no longer fit to store cowpea grain. We conducted a survey in November and December 2011 in the Maradi and Zinder regions in Niger to assess the reuse and recycling of PICS bags. Among the respondents, 48% were farmers who had volunteered to test PICS bags during village activities. Some 91% of respondents reused their bags at least once. More than 76% of farmers and 70% of cowpea merchants reused their bags at least twice. Slightly damaged PICS bags with only a few holes were typically repaired with tape and continued to be used to store cowpea grain. When PICS bags could no longer be used to store cowpea, they were recycled to store other crops or used for roofing, tarps, and diaper covers. Respondents reported that PICS bags performed well in storing cowpea grain during consecutive years of use: 100% (year one), 97.3% (year two), 79.0% (year three), and 15.4% (year four). For grain storage purposes, PICS bags may have to be replaced after three or four years of use. There was no evidence that PICS bags are discarded into the environment; rather, they are used for other purposes when they are no longer fit to hermetically store cowpea grain. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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