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Cabrera-Bosquet L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Crossa J.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | von Zitzewitz J.,National Institute for Agricultural Research | Serret M.D.,University of Barcelona | Luis Araus J.,University of Barcelona
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Genomic selection (GS) and high-throughput phenotyping have recently been captivating the interest of the crop breeding community from both the public and private sectors world-wide. Both approaches promise to revolutionize the prediction of complex traits, including growth, yield and adaptation to stress. Whereas high-throughput phenotyping may help to improve understanding of crop physiology, most powerful techniques for high-throughput field phenotyping are empirical rather than analytical and comparable to genomic selection. Despite the fact that the two methodological approaches represent the extremes of what is understood as the breeding process (phenotype versus genome), they both consider the targeted traits (e.g. grain yield, growth, phenology, plant adaptation to stress) as a black box instead of dissecting them as a set of secondary traits (i.e. physiological) putatively related to the target trait. Both GS and high-throughput phenotyping have in common their empirical approach enabling breeders to use genome profile or phenotype without understanding the underlying biology. This short review discusses the main aspects of both approaches and focuses on the case of genomic selection of maize flowering traits and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and plant spectral reflectance as high-throughput field phenotyping methods for complex traits such as crop growth and yield. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Source

The national demand on date palm vitroplants has increased during the last decades. Hence, Moroccan needs in this field, till the year 2020, are about 3 million plants. Those plants will be used to rehabilitate palm groves devastated by Bayoud disease as well as to create new palm plantations. To fulfill this plant demand, the use of all available rapid propagation techniques is of great importance. Furthermore, the multiplication of improved genotypes should be privileged in this program. However, most of the genotypes selected for their best fruit quality and their tolerance to Bayoud disease are represented in the nature by single trees and this makes their micropropagation from offshoots very difficult. To overcome this problem, the use of tissues excised from young inflorescences remains the only way for micropropagation and wide diffusion of such genotypes. Plant material is collected from inflorescences at their emergence and then well disinfected before transferring to culture media for vegetative buds initiation. After many cycles of multiplication, complete plantlets can be regenerated and transferred to the greenhouse for acclimatization under controlled conditions. This process has been developed and applied, to date, to micropropagate more than 14 genotypes, and this method can be used as a powerful technique to propagate rare or selected genotypes that have no more offshoots. Plants produced by this technique and transferred to soil started to produce fruits in 2005. No abnormal growth or development was observed on those plants neither in the lab nor in the field. In the present paper, the entire micropropagation process from inflorescence tissues and the main research achievements will be discussed. © ISHS 2013. Source

Bensassi F.,Laboratory for Research on Biologically Compatible Compounds | Bensassi F.,National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gallerne C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Sharaf El Dein O.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 4 more authors.
Toxicon | Year: 2014

It is expected that humans are exposed to combined mycotoxins, which occur simultaneously in the food items, than to individual compounds and that can increase their potential toxicity. Considering this coincident production, deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) as they are produced by several Fusarium species, can interfere at a cellular level. Therefore, these two toxins were chosen to study their interactive effects on human colon carcinoma cells (HCT116), using the endpoints including cell viability, cell cycle analysis, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) determination and permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. Our results showed that DON and ZEN caused a marked decrease of cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, mediated by an activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic process; characterized by PTP opening and the loss of ΔΨm. Nevertheless, combined DON and ZEN reduced all the toxicities observed with the mycotoxins separately. Therefore, the combination of the two mycotoxins appears as a sub-additive response. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Lindstrom K.,University of Helsinki | Murwira M.,Soil Productivity Research Laboratory | Willems A.,Ghent University | Altier N.,National Institute for Agricultural Research
Research in Microbiology | Year: 2010

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is the main route for sustainable input of nitrogen into ecosystems. Nitrogen fixation in agriculture can be improved by inoculation of legume crops with suitable rhizobia. Knowledge of the biodiversity of rhizobia and of local populations is important for the design of successful inoculation strategies. Soybeans are major nitrogen-fixing crops in many parts of the world. Bradyrhizobial inoculants for soybean are very diverse, yet classification and characterization of strains have long been difficult. Recent genetic characterization methods permit more reliable identification and will improve our knowledge of local populations. Forage legumes form another group of agronomically important legumes. Research and extension policies valorizing rhizobial germplasm diversity and preservation, farmer training for proper inoculant use and legal enforcement of commercial inoculant quality have proved a successful approach to promoting the use of forage legumes while enhancing biological N2 fixation. It is worth noting that taxonomically important strains may not necessarily be important reference strains for other uses such as legume inoculation and genomics due to specialization of the different fields. This article points out both current knowledge and gaps remaining to be filled for further interaction and improvement of a rhizobial commons. © 2010. Source

Hofte M.,Ghent University | Altier N.,National Institute for Agricultural Research
Research in Microbiology | Year: 2010

The highly diverse genus Pseudomonas contains very effective biocontrol agents that can increase plant growth and improve plant health. Biocontrol characteristics, however, are strain-dependent and cannot be clearly linked to phylogenetic variation. Isolate screening remains essential to find suitable strains, which can be done by testing large local collections for disease suppression and plant-growth promotion exemplified in a case study on forage legumes in Uruguay or by targeted screening for Pseudomonas spp. which produce desirable secondary metabolites, as demonstrated in a case study on cocoyam in Cameroon. In both case studies, access to reference strains from public and private collections was essential for identification, phylogenetic studies and metabolite characterization. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

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