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Srinivasarao C.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Deshpande A.N.,Dry Farming Research Station | Venkateswarlu B.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Lal R.,Ohio State University | And 7 more authors.
Geoderma | Year: 2012

Soil fertility management and water conservation strongly impact soil quality and agronomic production of Vertisols. Thus the data from a 22-year of soil fertility management experiment conducted in semi arid tropical region of central India was used to evaluate the impact of input of crop residue carbon (C) through sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) cultivation in post monsoon season in Vertisols. In addition, the use of chemical fertilizers and manuring on crop yield sustainability and soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration was assessed to 1-m depth. Retention of crop residues of sorghum, and application of farmyard manure (FYM) equivalent to 25kgNha -1 along with 25kgNha -1 supplied through chemical fertilizers increased and maintained the SOC stock. Green leaf manuring with Leucaena clippings along with chemical fertilizers did not increase the SOC stock. However, a conjunctive use of crop residues and Leucaena clippings increased the profile SOC stock (68.5Mgha -1), an overall SOC build up (39.8%) and a high amount of SOC sequestration (14.4MgCha -1). These parameters were positively correlated with cumulative C input and also reflected in the sustainable yield index (SYI). Higher grain yield (1.19Mgha -1) through the application of 25kgN (CR)+25kgN (Leucaena) was obtained. For every Mg increase in SOC stock in the root zone there was 0.09Mgha -1 increase in grain yield of sorghum. Stabilization of the SOC stock (zero change under cropping) requires a minimum input of 1.1MgCha -1year -1. Application of 50kgNha -1 through chemical fertilizer also maintained the SOC stock at the antecedent SOC level. Therefore, a combined use of organic manure (crop residues and FYM) or green leaf manure along with chemical fertilizer is essential to enhancing SOC sequestration in sorghum cultivation in Vertisols during the post monsoon season in central India. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Srinivasarao C.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Venkateswarlu B.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Lal R.,Ohio State University | Singh A.K.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2012

Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a strong determinant of soil quality and agronomic productivity especially under harsh arid and semiarid environments of the tropics. Thus, a 20-year experiment was used to assess the impact of rainfed groundnut (Arachis hypogeae) monocropping, fertilization and manuring on soil quality, SOC sequestration, and crop yield sustainability on an Alfisol in southern India. Five treatments with 4 replications were: (1) control (no fertilizer or manure), (2) 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF, 20:40:40kgha -1 of N:P 2O 5:K 2O), (3) 50% RDF+4Mgha -1 of groundnut shells (GNS), (4) 50% RDF+4Mgha -1 of farmyard manure (FYM) and (5) 5Mgha -1 of FYM. The SOC concentration to 1-m depth increased from 2.3 to 3.5gkg -1 (52.2%) in 50% RDF+4Mgha -1 GNS over control and mean SOC sequestration rate was 0.57MgCha -1yr -1. Higher mean pod yield of groundnut (Mgha -1) was obtained with 50% RDF+4Mgha -1FYM (1.03). The rate of increase in groundnut pod yield was 13kgha -1yr -1 for every one Mg increase in profile SOC stock. A minimum of 1.12MgCha -1yr -1 input was needed to maintain the zero change in SOC. Hence, combined use of chemical fertilizers and organic manure is essential to enhancing SOC sequestration in monocrop regions in semi arid tropical conditions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Srinivasarao C.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Venkateswarlu B.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Kumar Singh A.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Pandu Ranga Vittal K.,National Institute for Abiotic Stress Management | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science | Year: 2012

Enrichment of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks through sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in agricultural soils is important because of its impacts on adaptation to and mitigation of climate change while also improving crop productivity and sustainability. In a long-term fertility experiment carried out over 27 y under semiarid climatic condition, we evaluated the impact of crop-residue C inputs through rainfed fingermillet (Eleusine coracana [L.] Gaertn.) cropping, fertilization, and manuring on crop yield sustainability and SOC sequestration in a Alfisol soil profile up to a depth of 1 m and also derived the critical value of C inputs for maintenance of SOC. Five treatments, viz., control, farmyard manure (FYM) 10 Mg ha-1, recommended dose of NPK (50 : 50 : 25kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1), FYM 10 Mg ha-1 + 50% recommended dose of NPK, and FYM 10 Mg ha-1 + 100% recommended dose of NPK imposed in a randomized block design replicated four times. Application of FYM alone or together with mineral fertilizer resulted in a higher C input and consequently built up a higher C stock. After 27 y, higher profile SOC stock (85.7 Mg ha-1), C build up (35.0%), and C sequestration (15.4 Mg C ha-1) was observed with the application of 10 Mg FYM ha-1 along with recommended dose of mineral fertilizer and these were positively correlated with cumulative C input and well reflected in sustainable yield index (SYI). For sustenance of SOC level (zero change due to cropping) a minimum quantity of 1.13 Mg C is required to be added per hectare per annum as inputs. While the control lost C, the application of mineral fertilizer served to maintain the priori C stock. Thus, the application of FYM increased the C stock, an effect which was even enhanced by additional amendment of mineral fertilizer. We conclude that organic amendments contribute to C sequestration counteracting climate change and at the same time improve soil fertility in the semiarid regions of India resulting in higher and more stable yields. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Srinivasarao C.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Venkateswarlu B.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Lal R.,Ohio State University | Singh A.K.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability | Year: 2012

The data from long-term management and cropping systems experiments are needed to assess changes in soil quality, organic carbon pool, and agronomic sustainability. Thus, a 13-year-old soil fertility management experiment was used to assess the impact of crop residues carbon (C) inputs on SOC stock in a rainfed groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L.)-fingermillet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) rotation in semiarid alfisol. The application of farmyard manure (FYM) alone or in a combination with chemical fertilizers contributed to higher amounts of C inputs and subsequently to build up a higher SOC pool. Application of 10 Mg ha-1 of FYM and a recommended dose of chemical fertilizer (25:21.8:20.7 and 50:21.8:20.7 kg N, P, K ha-1 for groundnut and fingermillet, respectively) increased soil SOC pool by 41.2% to 73.0 Mg ha-1 with an increase of 9.3 Mg ha-1 over 13 years. Both SOC pool and rates of its sequestration were positively correlated with cumulative C input and sustainable yield index. A minimal input of 1.62 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 is needed to maintain SOC pool at the antecedent level. Balanced application of NPK fertilizers is needed to reduce and reverse the depletion of SOC pool. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.


Srinivasarao C.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Venkateswarlu B.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Lal R.,Ohio State University | Singh A.K.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2014

Soil organic carbon (SOC) pools are important for maintaining soil productivity and reducing the net CO2 loading of the atmosphere. An 18-year old long-term field experiment involving pearl millet-cluster bean-castor sequence was conducted on an Entisol in western India to examine the effects of chemical fertilizers and manuring on carbon pools in relation to crop productivity and C sequestration. The data showed that even the addition of 33.5Mgha-1C inputs through crop residues as well as farm yard manure could not compensate the SOC depletion by oxidation and resulted in the net loss of 4.4MgCha-1 in 18years. The loss of SOC stock in the control was 12MgCha-1. Conjunctive use of chemical fertilizers along with farm yard manure produced higher agronomic yields and reduced the rate of SOC depletion. The higher average seed yields of pearl millet (809kgha-1), cluster bean (576), and castor (827) over six cropping seasons were obtained through integrated use of fertilizers and manure. For every Mg increase in profile SOC stock, there was an overall increase of 0.46Mg of crop yield, comprising increase in individual yield of pearl millet (0.17Mgha-1y-1Mg-1 SOC), cluster bean (0.14) and castor (0.15). The magnitude of SOC build up was proportional to the C inputs. Carbon pools were significantly correlated with SOC, which increased with application of organic amendments. Threshold C input of 3.3MgCha-1y-1 was needed to maintain the SOC stock even at the low antecedent level. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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