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Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

Delangue J.,Aix - Marseille University | Salez N.,Aix - Marseille University | Ninove L.,Aix - Marseille University | Kieffer A.,EHESP School of Public Health | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2012

We looked for evidence of antibodies to the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic virus in panels of sera from individuals living in metropolitan France, obtained either before, during or after the epidemic, using standard haemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization tests. The difference between seroprevalence values measured in post- and pre-epidemic panels was used as an estimate of seroconversion rate in different age groups (23.4% (0-24 years, age-group 0); 16.5% (25-34); 7.9% (35-44); 7.2% (45-54); 1.6% (55-64); and 3.1% (>65)), confirming that the distribution of cases in different age groups was similar to that of the seasonal H1N1 virus. During the pre-pandemic period low-titre cross-reactive antibodies were present in a large proportion of the population (presumably acquired against seasonal H1N1) whereas cross-reactive antibodies were detected in individuals over the age of 65years with significantly higher prevalence and serological titres (presumably acquired previously against Spanish flu-related H1N1 strains). Clinical data and analysis of post-pandemic seroprevalence showed that few of these latter patients were infected by the influenza virus during the epidemic. In contrast, the majority of both clinical cases and seroconversions were recorded in the 0-24 age group and a global inverse relationship between prevalence of antibodies to pH1N1 in the pre-pandemic period and rate of seroconversion was observed amongst age groups. Our results emphasize the complex relationships involved in antigenic reactivity to pandemic and seasonal H1N1 viral antigens; hence the difficulty in distinguishing between low-titre specific and cross-reactive antibodies, establishing precise seroprevalence numbers and fully understanding the relationship between previous immunity to seasonal viruses and protection against the novel variant. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Casalegno J.-S.,University of Lyon | Casalegno J.-S.,National Influenza Center South of France | Ferraris O.,University of Lyon | Escuret V.,University of Lyon | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

D222G/N substitutions in A(H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutinin may be associated with increased binding of viruses causing low respiratory tract infections and human pathogenesis. We assessed the impact of such substitutions on the balance between hemagglutinin binding and neuraminidase cleavage, viral growth and in vivo virulence.Seven viruses with differing polymorphisms at codon 222 (2 with D, 3 G, 1 N and 1 E) were isolated from patients and characterized with regards hemagglutinin binding affinity (Kd) to α-2,6 sialic acid (SAα-2,6) and SAα-2,3 and neuraminidase enzymatic properties (Km, Ki and Vmax). The hemagglutination assay was used to quantitatively assess the balance between hemagglutinin binding and neuraminidase cleavage. Viral growth properties were compared in vitro in MDCK-SIAT1 cells and in vivo in BALB/c mice. Compared with D222 variants, the binding affinity of G222 variants was greater for SAα-2,3 and lower for SAα-2,6, whereas that of both E222 and N222 variants was greater for both SAα-2,3 and SAα-2,6. Mean neuraminidase activity of D222 variants (16.0 nmol/h/106) was higher than that of G222 (1.7 nmol/h/106 viruses) and E/N222 variants (4.4 nmol/h/106 viruses). The hemagglutination assay demonstrated a deviation from functional balance by E222 and N222 variants that displayed strong hemagglutinin binding but weak neuraminidase activity. This deviation impaired viral growth in MDCKSIAT1 cells but not infectivity in mice. All strains but one exhibited low infectious dose in mice (MID50) and replicated to high titers in the lung; this D222 strain exhibited a ten-fold higher MID50 and replicated to low titers. Hemagglutininneuraminidase balance status had a greater impact on viral replication than hemagglutinin affinity strength, at least in vitro, thus emphasizing the importance of an optimal balance for influenza virus fitness. The mouse model is effective in assessing binding to SAα-2,3 but cannot differentiate SAα-2,3- from SAα-2,6- preference, nor estimate the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase balance in A(H1N1)pdm09 strains. © 2014 Casalegno et al.

Ferraris O.,University of Lyon | Escuret V.,University of Lyon | Escuret V.,National Influenza Center South of France | Bouscambert-Duchamp M.,University of Lyon | And 5 more authors.
Pathologie Biologie | Year: 2010

Oseltamivir and zanamivir are two neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) active on A and B influenza viruses. These analogues have been developed from the structure of sialic acid, the neuraminidase (NA) substrate. Resistance to NAIs have been detected. They are mainly associated to mutations located on the NA gene. The use of these antiviral drugs remains low in the context of seasonal flu, even the duration of symptoms can be reduced of one day if an antiviral treatment is started within 48. hours after disease onset. NAIs also present a significant effect when used in postexposition prophylaxis. Resistance, mainly to oseltamivir, have been detected but remained rare until the spontaneous emergence in 2007-2008 winter of a seasonal A(H1N1) variant resistant to this drug. NAIs are also interesting for the treatment of severe flu infections, specially those associated to A(H5N1). Finally, because of the pandemic A(H1N1)2009 virus, NAIs use has largely increased for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of severe and non severe infections. This large use may be associated to an increased risk of selection of resistant viruses. Up to now, this phenomenon remains fortunately limited but has to be closely monitored. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Duchamp M.B.,National Influenza Center South of France | Duchamp M.B.,University of Lyon | Casalegno J.S.,National Influenza Center South of France | Casalegno J.S.,University of Lyon | And 15 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2010

The emergence of the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus prompted the development of sensitive RT-PCR detection methods. Most are real time RT-PCRs which can provide viral quantification. In this manuscript, we describe a universal influenza A RT-PCR targeting the matrix (M) gene, combined with an RNaseP RT-PCR. These PCRs allow the detection of all influenza A virus subtypes, including A(H1N1)2009, together with a real-time assessment of the quality of the specimens tested. These PCR procedures were evaluated on 209 samples collected from paediatric patients. Viral loads determined through Ct values were corrected according to the RNaseP Ct value. The mean viral load in the collected samples was estimated to be 6.84 log RNA copies/mL. For poor quality samples (RNaseP Ct > 27), corrections resulted in +3 to +8 Ct values for the M gene RT-PCR. Corrected influenza Ct values were lower in late samples. No correlation was established between viral loads and clinical severity or duration of disease.This study shows that real time RT-PCR targeting the matrix gene is a reliable tool for quantification of type A influenza virus but emphasises the need for sample quality control assessment through cellular gene quantification for reliable estimation of the viral load. This method would be useful for disease management when repeated specimens are collected from an infected individual. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Casalegno J.S.,National Influenza Center South of France | Casalegno J.S.,University of Lyon | Ottmann M.,University of Lyon | Bouscambert Duchamp M.,National Influenza Center South of France | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2010

In contrast to the experience in other European countries, the onset of the A(H1N1)2009 influenza virus epidemic was unexpectedly slow in France during the first part of autumn 2009. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that intense circulation of rhinoviruses might have reduced the probability of infection by A(H1N1)2009 virus at the beginning of autumn 2009. Systematic analysis for the detection of A(H1N1)2009 (H1N1) and human rhinovirus (HRV) was performed by RT-PCR from week 36 to week 48 on respiratory samples sent to the diagnostic laboratory by the paediatric hospital (n =2121). Retrospective analysis of the obtained data, using 2 × 2 contingency tables with Fisher's exact test, revealed evidence of an inverse relationship between HRV and H1N1 detection. Between weeks 36 and 48 of 2009, both HRV and H1N1 were detected but in different time frames. HRV dispersed widely during early September, peaking at the end of the month, whereas the H1N1 epidemic began during mid-October and was still active at the end of this survey. During the co-circulation period of these two respiratory viruses (weeks 43-46), HRV detection appeared to reduce the likelihood of H1N1 detection in the same sample (OR = 0.08-0.24 p <0.0001). These results support the hypothesis that HRV infections can reduce the probability of A(H1N1) infection. This viral interference between respiratory viruses could have affected the spread of the H1N1 viruses and delayed the influenza pandemic at the beginning of autumn in France. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

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