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Hamid Z.Abd.,Construction Research Institute of Malaysia CREAM | Zain M.Z.Mohd.,Construction Research Institute of Malaysia CREAM | Hung F.C.,Construction Research Institute of Malaysia CREAM | Halim M.F.,Construction Research Institute of Malaysia CREAM | And 3 more authors.
Malaysian Construction Research Journal | Year: 2016

Ram pump is a rather 'mature' technology as it has been used over the last two centuries with many variations to design and basic configurations have been tried. However, following the increasing awareness of the adverse impact of global warming and the needs of sustainable technology, interest in ram pump for water supply purpose has revived. Ram pump is perceived as an ideal sustainable technology as it makes use of the renewable energy source and ensures low running and maintenance cost. It is of great potential to be functioning as a simple and reliable pumping device in those hilly remote areas which are of no water supply coverage. This paper presents the performance test results of ram pump system, which was developed to be applied in Kampung Sungai Dua Olak, an indigenous people settlement situated in Bentong, Malaysia, for the establishment of a sustainable rural water supply system that is aimed to be replicated across other rural communities in the tropical region. The paper starts by drawing the framework for sustainable low-cost water supply system, followed by demonstrating the methodology, testing setup, and the results of a series of seven ram pump performance tests. It was found that ram pump could perform under different variations of water sources parameter. At the laboratory scale, it was confirmed that ram pump had its potential to provide an alternative means of water supply delivery system though not as efficient as conventional supply. © 2016, Construction Research Institute of Malaysia. All rights reserved.


Amin M.Z.M.,National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia NAHRIM | Shaaban A.J.,National Water Research Institute | Ohara N.,University of Wyoming | Kavvas M.L.,University of California at Davis | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2016

Climate change's impact on the Sabah and Sarawak water resources in the Northern sector of the Borneo Island, Malaysia, was assessed based on the dynamically-downscaled general circulation model projections (GCMPs) by means of a regional hydroclimate model (RegHCM). Four future projections under the special report on emissions scenarios (SRES) A1B emission scenario from two general circulation models (GCMs) were selected for this study. The RegHCM, which is a coupled nonhydrostatic atmospheric and upscaled land surface process model, is capable of downscaling the outputs of these GCMPs (GCM projections) to the watershed scale at a 9-km grid resolution at hourly time intervals for hundreds of years-a simulation for 420 years was performed in this study. This dynamic downscaling by the RegHCM can incorporate the detailed soil and land-cover data. It is shown in this article that utilizing a methodology that incorporates a GCM, a RegHCM, and a hydrological routing model allows assessing climate change on the hydrologic conditions at the watershed scale. It is revealed that the effect of climate change in the states of Sabah and Sarawak can be quite heterogeneous. Furthermore, it is shown that the effect of a projected land-cover change over a geographical region, such as Sabah and Sarawak, can be evaluated in the future using the RegHCM described in this study. Results indicate that the increase in oil palm plantations in Sabah and Sarawak may not significantly affect the local water resources. In order to improve the assessment accuracy of land-use change, further investigation on the model parameters associated with future land-cover information is desirable. © 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Shaaban A.J.,National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia NAHRIM | Amin M.Z.M.,National Water Research Institute | Ohara N.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2012

The future projections of climate change by means of global climate models of the Earth provide fundamental coarse-grid-resolution hydroclimate data for studies of the effect of climate change on water resources. This paper reports on a study that was performed during 2001-2006, in which the climate change simulations of the coupled global climate model of the Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis were downscaled by a regional hydroclimate model of Peninsular Malaysia (RegHCM-PM) to the scale of the subregions and watersheds of Peninsular Malaysia (PM), to assess the effect of future climate change on its water resources. On the basis of the simulations of hydroclimatic conditions during the historical period of 1984-1993 and future periods of 2025-2034 and 2041-2050, this report concludes that the overall mean monthly streamflow is approximately the same during both the future period, and the historical period for most of the watersheds of Peninsular Malaysia, except Kelantan and Pahang. In those two watersheds, a significant increase occurs in the overall mean monthly streamflow during the future period. In the future, high flow conditions will be magnified in the Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, and Perak River watersheds during the wet months, whereas low monthly flows will be significantly lower in the Selangor and Klang watersheds during the dry months. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Lee H.L.,National University of Malaysia | Lee H.L.,National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia NAHRIM | Tangang F.,National University of Malaysia | Wahap M.H.,National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia NAHRIM | Yang S.,National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia NAHRIM
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2016

Hypoxia is commonly defined as oxygen depletion when the dissolved oxygen (DO) levels fall below 2 mg L-1. In this paper, physical factors contributed to hypoxic condition in the diurnal tide, Terengganu Estuary has been experimentally and analytically studies. Hourly profiles on DO, current speed and nutrient were measured during the wet and dry seasons for continuous period approximately 30 hours, which cover both high and low tide at two fixed stations, located at the river mouth and 9.50 km upstream from the river mouth, respectively. It was observed that the entire estuary was free from hypoxia during the wet season. However, hypoxia was developed at the river mouth during the dry season with lowest reading of the DO level was 0.78 mg L-1. It was demonstrated that the combination of high contamination of nutrient, low current speed, the geometrical formation and water stratification are recognized as important role in formatting the hypoxia at the Terengganu river mouth. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Sharip Z.,Lake Research Unit | Zaki A.T.A.,Lake Research Unit | Shapai M.A.H.M.,Lake Research Unit | Suratman S.,Hydrogeology Research Center | Shaaban A.J.,National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia NAHRIM
Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management | Year: 2014

The present study was undertaken to evaluate and verify the water quality status and trophic state of 15 major lakes and reservoirs in Malaysia. The lake water quality assessments were based on the National Water Quality Index (NWQI), while the trophic state assessments were based on Carlson's Trophic State Index (TSI). The findings of this water quality assessment, based on data collected between September and October 2012, indicated that a majority of the lakes were classified as Class II (Clean) waters suitable for recreational use. The results of the trophic state assessments, however, indicated that all of the lakes were eutrophic, meaning they were nutrient-rich, they could experience algae blooms or macrophyte problems, and they were likely to exhibit poor water quality. Sustainable management measures and strategies are suggested to address the eutrophication problems of Malaysian lakes and reservoirs, with the national responses on lake and reservoir management also being discussed. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


Toriman M.E.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Toriman M.E.,National University of Malaysia | Hashim N.,National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia NAHRIM | Kamarudin M.K.A.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | And 5 more authors.
Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences | Year: 2015

Issues such as water pollution and extraction of water from Sungai Selangor system has been said to be the cause of ‘fading fireflies’. Salinity intrusion into estuary of the Sungai Selangor has been carried out on a hydrodynamic numerical modeling to access the parameter that governed the amount of salt in the river. The berembang trees on the river bank that become the fireflies’ habitat need some amount of salt for proper growth. Living at the lower reaches of Sungai Selangor, the fireflies are affected not only by the activities in their vicinity, but by activities in the entire river basin. Rapid economic development in the basin and the strong demand for the water resources puts pressure on the ecosystem. This research has been carried out to investigate the effect of water extraction along Sungai Selangor towards altering the amount of salt content in the river. The hydrodynamic modeling with regards to the salt content is expected to support long term assessment that may affect the berembang trees as a result of changes in the flow from upstream because of the water abstraction activity for domestic water supply. © 2015, Malaysian Society of Analytical Sciences. All rights reserved.


Kasim M.F.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Kasim M.F.,National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia NAHRIM | Juahir H.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Tawnie I.,National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia NAHRIM | And 6 more authors.
Jurnal Teknologi | Year: 2015

In this research, determination of water quality status was carried out by using non-parametric Mann-Kendall analysis for the Linggi River Basin and for classification of the river, HACA and PCA has been used to classify the river to obtain the clearest picture of the water quality status. The dataset includes 6 parameters for 6 monitoring stations (1997 to 2012). Mann-Kendall trend analysis shows trend analysis indicate that significant improvement trend for all parameters studied except for BOD (WQ1 (P<0.1) and WQ6 (P<0.05)) and SS (WQ4 to WQ6 (P<0.05)) trend were shows the unhealthy significant trend. This indicates that even though the WQI getting good in trend, a few parameters such as BOD and SS need to be watched and enforcement by the local authority need to be done to make sure the WQI continuously getting better in the future. HACA grouped the six monitoring stations into three different clusters based on their similarities namely less pollution site (LPS), medium pollution site (MPS) and high pollution site (HPS). HACA indicate one station (WQ1) into group LPS, two stations into MPS (WQ2 and WQ3) and three stations into HPS (WQ4, WQ5 and WQ6) respectively. PCA was used to investigate the origin of each water quality variable based on the clustered region. Three principal components (PCs) were obtained with 75.3% total variation for HPS, 73.4% for MPS and 68.1% for LPS. The major pollution source for HPS are of anthropogenic source (municipal waste, domestic wastes) while for MPS the major source of pollution was from non point source pollution such as animal husbandry in livestock farm. For the LPS, major source comes from the sea tide effect (natural effect). The identification and classification of different region by this study will help the local authorities make better and more informed decisions about the improvement water quality program for the future. © 2015 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved.


Abdul Wahab A.S.,University Putra Malaysia | Syed Ismail S.N.,University Putra Malaysia | Praveena S.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Awang S.,National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia NAHRIM
Iranian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Conclusion: The overall results demonstrated that water mimosa could be used to remediate wastewater polluted with Cd, Cu and Pb. The plant is not recommended for human consumption as its ability to retain heavy metals in edible parts.Methods: Water mimosa was treated with Pb, Cu and Cd at concentrations of 0.5 to 20 mg/L and the level of heavy metals uptake was measured. Treated plants were also harvested and soaked in boiled water (100˚C) for 2 to 10 minutes to determine the level of heavy metals reduction. Heavy metals were detected by Inductively-Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Experiment was conducted in the Environmental Health laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia from June to December 2013.Results: Water mimosa accumulates up to 93% of Cd (5 mg/L) after 10 days of treatment, the highest as compared to Cu (80%) and Pb (50%). It also has the highest BCF when treated with 10 mg/L of Cd. The heavy metals concentration in plant tissue decreased as the boiling time increased.Background: Neptunia oleracea or ‘water mimosa’ has a phytoremediation ability which is rarely being assessed. This plant also can be eaten as raw or cooked and but brought such concern on its safety for human consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the phytoremediation ability of water mimosa and its safety for human consumption. © 2014, Iranian Journal of Public Health. All rights reserved.


Liew Y.S.,National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia NAHRIM | Selamat Z.,National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia NAHRIM | Ghani A.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Zakaria N.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Urban Water Journal | Year: 2012

The Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA) was published in 2001 by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID), which promotes Best Management Practices (BMPs) aimed at stormwater management at the source. The construction of detention ponds has been strongly encouraged for water quantity control for new housing developments. This study focuses on the evaluation, using the InfoWorks Collection Systems (CS) model, of the effectiveness of a constructed dry detention pond built in 1996 located at Kota Damansara, Selangor. Hydrological and hydraulic data were collected for model calibration and verification. The study indicates that the dry detention pond can achieve its design goals, catering the flow from a 100-year Average Recurrence Interval or ARI storm and complies with the design requirement in the MSMA for major urban stormwater systems. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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