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Belkaid Y.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Segre J.A.,National Human Genome Research Institute
Science | Year: 2014

Human skin, the body's largest organ, functions as a physical barrier to bar the entry of foreign pathogens, while concomitantly providing a home to myriad commensals. Over a human's life span, keratinized skin cells, immune cells, and microbes all interact to integrate the processes of maintaining skin's physical and immune barrier under homeostatic healthy conditions and also under multiple stresses, such as wounding or infection. In this Review, we explore the intricate interactions of microbes and immune cells on the skin surface and within associated appendages to regulate this orchestrated maturation in the context of both host physiological changes and environmental challenges.

Manolio T.A.,National Human Genome Research Institute
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

Over the past 5 years, genomewide association studies have yielded a wealth of insight into genes and chromosomal loci that contribute to susceptibility to disease. This article, the second in the Genomic Medicine series, describes the design of these studies and considers the extent to which the data they provide are useful in predicting the risk of disease. Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Gao B.,National Human Genome Research Institute
Current Topics in Developmental Biology | Year: 2012

Planar cell polarity (PCP), a process controlling coordinated, uniformly polarized cellular behaviors in a field of cells, has been identified to be critically required for many fundamental developmental processes. However, a global directional cue that establishes PCP in a three-dimensional tissue or organ with respect to the body axes remains elusive. In vertebrate, while Wnt-secreted signaling molecules have been implicated in regulating PCP in a β-catenin-independent manner, whether they function permissively or act as a global cue to convey directional information is not clearly defined. In addition, the underlying molecular mechanism by which Wnt signal is transduced to core PCP proteins is largely unknown. In this chapter, I review the roles of Wnt signaling in regulating PCP during vertebrate development and update our knowledge of its regulatory mechanism. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Zhou Q.,National Human Genome Research Institute
Nature Genetics | Year: 2015

Systemic autoinflammatory diseases are driven by abnormal activation of innate immunity. Herein we describe a new disease caused by high-penetrance heterozygous germline mutations in TNFAIP3, which encodes the NF-κB regulatory protein A20, in six unrelated families with early-onset systemic inflammation. The disorder resembles Behçet's disease, which is typically considered a polygenic disorder with onset in early adulthood. A20 is a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Mutant, truncated A20 proteins are likely to act through haploinsufficiency because they do not exert a dominant-negative effect in overexpression experiments. Patient-derived cells show increased degradation of IκBα and nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit together with increased expression of NF-κB–mediated proinflammatory cytokines. A20 restricts NF-κB signals via its deubiquitinase activity. In cells expressing mutant A20 protein, there is defective removal of Lys63-linked ubiquitin from TRAF6, NEMO and RIP1 after stimulation with tumor necrosis factor (TNF). NF-κB–dependent proinflammatory cytokines are potential therapeutic targets for the patients with this disease. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

Aksentijevich I.,National Human Genome Research Institute
Seminars in Immunopathology | Year: 2015

Autoinflammatory diseases are a genetically heterogeneous group of rheumatologic diseases that are driven by abnormal activation of the innate immune system. Patients present with recurrent episodes of systemic inflammation and a spectrumof organ-specific comorbidities. These diseases are mediated by the overproduction of various inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-18, IL-6, TNFα, and type I interferon. Treatments with biologic agents that inhibit these cytokines have been very efficient in most patients. During the past 2 years, remarkable progress has been made in the identification of disease-associated genes owing mostly to new technologies. Next generation sequencing technologies (NGS) have become instrumental in finding single-gene defects in undiagnosed patients with early onset symptoms. NGS has advanced the field of autoinflammation by identifying disease-causing genes that point to pathways not known to regulate cytokine signaling or inflammation. They include a protein that has a role in differentiation of myeloid cells, a ubiquitously expressed enzyme that catalyzes the addition of the CCA terminus to the 3-prime end of tRNA precursors, and an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of a broad range of substrates. Lastly, newly described mutations have informed a whole new dimension on genotype-phenotype relationships. Mutations in the same gene can give rise to a range of phenotypes with a common inflammatory component. This suggests greater than anticipated contributions by modifying alleles and environmental factors to disease expressivity. © Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2015.

Manolio T.A.,National Human Genome Research Institute
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2013

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been heralded as a major advance in biomedical discovery, having identified ~2,000 robust associations with complex diseases since 2005. Despite this success, they have met considerable scepticism regarding their clinical applicability; this scepticism arises from such aspects as the modest effect sizes of associated variants and their unclear functional consequences. There are, however, promising examples of GWAS findings that will or that may soon be translated into clinical care. These examples include variants identified through GWASs that provide strongly predictive or prognostic information or that have important pharmacological implications; these examples may illustrate promising approaches to wider clinical application. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Yang Y.,National Human Genome Research Institute
Cell and Bioscience | Year: 2012

Cell signaling mediated by morphogens is essential to coordinate growth and patterning, two key processes that govern the formation of a complex multi-cellular organism. During growth and patterning, cells are specified by both quantitative and directional information. While quantitative information regulates cell proliferation and differentiation, directional information is conveyed in the form of cell polarities instructed by local and global cues. Major morphogens like Wnts play critical roles in embryonic development and they are also important in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Abnormal regulation of these signaling events leads to a diverse array of devastating diseases including cancer. Wnts transduce their signals through several distinct pathways and they regulate vertebrate embryonic development by providing both quantitative and directional information. Here, taking the developing skeletal system as an example, we review our work on Wnt signaling pathways in various aspects of development. We focus particularly on our most recent findings that showed that in vertebrates, Wnt5a acts as a global cue to establishing planar cell polarity (PCP). Our work suggests that Wnt morphogens regulate development by integrating quantitative and directional information. Our work also provides important insights in disease like Robinow syndrome, brachydactyly type B1 (BDB1) and spina bifida, which can be caused by human mutations in the Wnt/PCP signaling pathway. © 2012 Yang; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Gao B.,National Human Genome Research Institute | Yang Y.,National Human Genome Research Institute
Current Opinion in Genetics and Development | Year: 2013

Studies of the vertebrate limb development have contributed significantly to understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying growth, patterning, and morphogenesis of a complex multicellular organism. In the limb, well-defined signaling centers interact to coordinate limb growth and patterning along the three axes. Recent analyses of live imaging and mathematical modeling have provided evidence that polarized cell behaviors governed by morphogen gradients play an important role in shaping the limb bud. Furthermore, the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway that controls uniformly polarized cell behaviors in a field of cells has emerged to be critical for directional morphogenesis in the developing limb. Directional information coded in the morphogen gradient may be interpreted by responding cells through regulating the activities of PCP components in a Wnt morphogen dose-dependent manner. © 2013.

Ritchie M.D.,Pennsylvania State University | Holzinger E.R.,National Human Genome Research Institute | Li R.,Pennsylvania State University | Pendergrass S.A.,Pennsylvania State University | Kim D.,Pennsylvania State University
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2015

Recent technological advances have expanded the breadth of available omic data, from whole-genome sequencing data, to extensive transcriptomic, methylomic and metabolomic data. A key goal of analyses of these data is the identification of effective models that predict phenotypic traits and outcomes, elucidating important biomarkers and generating important insights into the genetic underpinnings of the heritability of complex traits. There is still a need for powerful and advanced analysis strategies to fully harness the utility of these comprehensive high-throughput data, identifying true associations and reducing the number of false associations. In this Review, we explore the emerging approaches for data integration-including meta-dimensional and multi-staged analyses-which aim to deepen our understanding of the role of genetics and genomics in complex outcomes. With the use and further development of these approaches, an improved understanding of the relationship between genomic variation and human phenotypes may be revealed. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Schoenebeck J.J.,National Human Genome Research Institute | Ostrander E.A.,National Human Genome Research Institute
Annual review of cell and developmental biology | Year: 2014

Although most modern dog breeds are less than 200 years old, the symbiosis between man and dog is ancient. Since prehistoric times, repeated selection events have transformed the wolf into man's guardians, laborers, athletes, and companions. The rapid transformation from pack predator to loyal companion is a feat that is arguably unique among domesticated animals. How this transformation came to pass remained a biological mystery until recently: Within the past decade, the deployment of genomic approaches to study population structure, detect signatures of selection, and identify genetic variants that underlie canine phenotypes is ushering into focus novel biological mechanisms that make dogs remarkable. Ironically, the very practices responsible for breed formation also spurned morbidity; today, many diseases are correlated with breed identity. In this review, we discuss man's best friend in the context of a genetic model to understand paradigms of heritable phenotypes, both desirable and disadvantageous.

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