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Wang P.-Y.,National Chiayi University | Yang H.-C.,National Hsinchu University of Education
Computers and Education | Year: 2012

This study examined the impact of collaborative filtering (the so-called recommender) on college students' use of an online forum for English learning. The forum was created with an open-source software, Drupal.; its extended recommender module. This study was guided by three main questions: 1) Is there any difference in online behaviors between students who use a traditional forum and students who use a forum with a recommender?; 2) Is there any difference in learning motivation between students who use a traditional forum and students who use a forum with a recommender?; 3) Is there any difference in learning achievement between students who use a traditional forum and students who use a forum with a recommender?. This study was a one-way quasi-experimental design where the independent variable was the type of forum (two levels: traditional forum and forum with recommender). Students registering in four sessions of a college English course participated in the study and were randomly assigned into two groups. The total sample number was 144. The whole experiment lasted eight weeks. All students took a diagnostic test as a pre-test in Week One. From Week Two to Week Seven, students joined the class and wrote summaries, reflections and comments on the online forum. Students in different groups went on different forums. All students were asked to participate in a midterm exam in Week Four.; a final exam and online survey in Week Eight. Data collected in this study included pre-test scores, midterm exam scores (receptive and productive language test scores), final exam scores (receptive and productive language test scores), online survey (motivation and recommender perception).; Weblog data. The data were analyzed by using ANOVA procedure and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U-test. The findings were as follows: 1) Students in the group with the forum recommender read online posts more frequently than the control group.; 2) students with the forum recommender outperformed their counterparts in their productive language test scores. However, there was no significant difference in learning motivation between the two groups. To enhance motivation for using the recommender, students offered their comments on how to revise the recommender, such as making the recommendation rating more personalized and explicit. This study is expected to provide empirical evidence to recommender research in education as well as broaden innovative insights into instructional recommender design. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Huang H.-C.,National Hsinchu University of Education | Lin J.-K.,National Taiwan University
Food and Function | Year: 2012

Although green tea extract has been reported to suppress hyperlipidemia, it is unclear how tea extracts prepared from green, oolong, black and pu-erh teas modulate fatty acid synthase expression in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. In this animal study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic and hypoleptinemia effect of these four different tea leaves fed to male Wistar rats for 12 weeks. The results showed that a fructose-rich diet significantly elevated serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, insulin, and leptin concentrations, as compared with those in the control group. Interestingly, consuming tea leaves for 12 weeks almost normalized the serum triacylglycerols concentrations. Again, rats fed with fructose/green tea and fructose/pu-erh tea showed the greatest reduction in serum TG, cholesterol, insulin and leptin levels. In contrast, serum cholesterol and insulin concentrations of the fructose/oolong tea-fed rats did not normalize. The relative epididymal adipose tissue weight was lower in all rats supplemented with tea leaves than those fed with fructose alone. There was molecular evidence of improved lipid homeostasis according to fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression. Furthermore, supplementation of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves significantly decreased hepatic FAS mRNA and protein levels, and increased AMPK phosphorylation, compared with those of rats fed with fructose only. These findings suggest that the intake of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves ameliorated the fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperleptinemia state in part through the suppression of FAS protein levels and increased AMPK phosphorylation. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Liu J.-L.,National Hsinchu University of Education
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2013

The Poisson-Fermi equation proposed by Bazant, Storey, and Kornyshev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 (2011) 046102] for ionic liquids is applied to and numerically studied for electrolytes and biological ion channels in three-dimensional space. This is a fourth-order nonlinear PDE that deals with both steric and correlation effects of all ions and solvent molecules involved in a model system. The Fermi distribution follows from classical lattice models of configurational entropy of finite size ions and solvent molecules and hence prevents the long and outstanding problem of unphysical divergence predicted by the Gouy-Chapman model at large potentials due to the Boltzmann distribution of point charges. The equation reduces to Poisson-Boltzmann if the correlation length vanishes. A simplified matched interface and boundary method exhibiting optimal convergence is first developed for this equation by using a gramicidin A channel model that illustrates challenging issues associated with the geometric singularities of molecular surfaces of channel proteins in realistic 3D simulations. Various numerical methods then follow to tackle a range of numerical problems concerning the fourth-order term, nonlinearity, stability, efficiency, and effectiveness. The most significant feature of the Poisson-Fermi equation, namely, its inclusion of steric and correlation effects, is demonstrated by showing good agreement with Monte Carlo simulation data for a charged wall model and an L type calcium channel model. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Wang T.-H.,National Hsinchu University of Education
Computers and Education | Year: 2010

This research combines the idea of cake format dynamic assessment defined by Sternberg and Grigorenko (2001) and the 'graduated prompt approach' proposed by Campione and Brown (1985, 1987) to develop a multiple-choice Web-based dynamic assessment system. This research adopts a quasi-experimental design to investigate the effectiveness of this Web-based dynamic assessment system (GPAM-WATA) and normal Web-based test (N-WBT). One hundred and sixteen sixth grade elementary students from four classes participated in this research. These four classes were randomly divided into the GPAM-WATA group and N-WBT group. Before e-Learning instruction, all the students took the prior knowledge assessment and the pre-test of the summative assessment. After 2-week e-Learning instruction, all the students took the post-test of the summative assessment. The research findings show that students in the GPAM-WATA group experience better e-Learning effectiveness than those in the N-WBT group. GPAM-WATA is also found to be effective in improving the e-Learning effectiveness of students with low-level prior knowledge. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cheng K.-T.,National Hsinchu University of Education
International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management | Year: 2015

This study used path analysis to test a model positing that relevant governance mechanisms will have both direct and indirect relationships with regulatory captures (RCs) through the mediating effects of regulation. Based on a sample (n = 193) of regulatory public employees, results generally supported the hypothesised model for both supervisor- and self-assessed RCs. Accountability had a direct relationship with individual regulatory captures (RC-I), participation had a direct relationship with organisational regulatory captures (RC-O), and regulation had a direct relationship with both RC-I and RC-O. In addition, regulation partially mediated the relationship between accountability and both RC-O and RC-I. Overall, the results show that governance mechanisms differentially predict RCs and that regulators' attitudes about their regulation explain, in part, these associations between governance mechanisms and regulatory captures. © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


This research refers to the self-regulated learning strategies proposed by Pintrich (1999) in developing a multiple-choice Web-based assessment system, the Peer-Driven Assessment Module of the Web-based Assessment and Test Analysis system (PDA-WATA). The major purpose of PDA-WATA is to facilitate learner use of self-regulatory learning behaviors to perform self-regulated learning and in turn improve e-Learning effectiveness. PDA-WATA includes five main strategies: 'Adding Answer Notes,' 'Stating Confidence,' 'Reading Peer Answer Notes,' 'Recommending Peer Answer Notes' and 'Querying Peers' Recommendation on Personal Answer Notes'. Using these strategies, examinees are allowed to add answer notes to explain why they chose a certain option as the correct answer and state their confidence in their own answer and answer notes, for peers' reference. In addition to reading peer answer notes, examinees can also recommend peer answer notes as valuable references. The recommendation information can also be queried by all examinees. Quasi-experimental design was adopted to understand the effectiveness of PDA-WATA in facilitating learner use of self-regulatory learning behaviors to perform self-regulated learning and in improving learner e-Learning effectiveness. Participants were 123 seventh-grade junior high school students from four classes. These four classes were randomly divided into the PDA-WATA group (n = 63) and the N-WBT group (n = 60). Before e-Learning instruction, all students took the pre-test of the Learning Process Inventory (LPI), used to understand how often learners use self-regulatory learning behaviors in the learning process, and the pre-test of the summative assessment. After a two-week e-Learning instruction, the students all took the post-test of the LPI and the summative assessment. Results indicate that students in the PDA-WATA group appear to be more willing to take the Web-based formative assessment than students in the N-WBT group. In addition, PDA-WATA appears to be significantly more effective than N-WBT in facilitating learner use of self-regulatory learning behaviors to perform self-regulated learning and in improving their e-Learning effectiveness. Moreover, this research also finds that in the PDA-WATA group, there is no significant difference between the learning effectiveness of students with a low level of self-regulated learning and students with a high level of self-regulated learning, but similar result cannot be found in the N-WBT group. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wang T.-H.,National Hsinchu University of Education
Computers and Education | Year: 2014

This research used Web-based two-tier diagnostic assessment and Web-based dynamic assessment to develop an assessment-centered e-Learning system, named the 'GPAM-WATA e-Learning system.' This system consists of two major designs: (1) personalized dynamic assessment, meaning that the system automatically generates dynamic assessment for each learner based on the results of the pre-test of the two-tier diagnostic assessment; (2) personalized e-Learning material adaptive annotation, meaning that the system annotates the e-Learning materials each learner needs to enhance learning based on the results of the pre-test of the two-tier diagnostic assessment and dynamic assessment. This research adopts a quasi-experimental design, applying GPAM-WATA e-Learning system to remedial Mathematics teaching of the 'Speed' unit in an elementary school Mathematics course. 107 sixth-graders from four classes in an elementary school participated in this research (55 male and 52 female). With each class as a unit, they were divided into four different e-Learning models: (1) the personalized dynamic assessment and personalized e-Learning material adaptive annotation group (n = 26); (2) the personalized dynamic assessment and non-personalized e-Learning material adaptive annotation group (n = 28); (3) the non-personalized dynamic assessment and personalized e-Learning material adaptive annotation group (n = 26); and (4) the non-personalized dynamic assessment and non-personalized e-Learning material adaptive annotation group (n = 27). Before remedial teaching, all students took the prior knowledge assessment and the pre-test of the summative assessment and two-tier diagnostic assessment. Students then received remedial teaching and completed all teaching activities. After remedial teaching, all students took the post-test of the summative assessment and two-tier diagnostic assessment. It is found that compared to the e-Learning models without personalized dynamic assessment, e-Learning models with personalized dynamic assessment are significantly more effective in facilitating student learning achievement and improvement of misconceptions, especially for students with low-level prior knowledge. This research also finds that personalized e-Learning material adaptive annotation significantly affects the percentage of reading time students spend on the e-Learning materials they need to enhance learning. However, it does not appear to predict student learning achievement and improvement of misconceptions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chou H.-C.,National Hsinchu University of Education | Chan H.-L.,National Tsing Hua University
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2014

5-Methoxytryptophan (5-MTP), a catabolic product of tryptophan, can block Cox-2 overexpression in cancer cells as well as suppress cancer cell growth, migration and invasion. The aim of this study was to in vitro examine whether 5-MTP is able to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced heart ischemia reperfusion injury and activate the cardiomyocyte's damage surveillance systems. Accordingly, rattus cardiomyocytes were treated with H2O2 as a heart ischemia reperfusion model prior to incubation with/without 5-MTP and proteomic analysis was performed to investigate the physiologic protection of 5-MTP in H2O2-induced ischemia reperfusion in cardiomyocyte. Our data demonstrated that 5-MTP treatment does protect cardiomyocyte in the ROS-induced ischemia reperfusion model. 5-MTP has also been shown to significantly facilitate cell migration and wound healing via cytoskeletal regulations. Additionally, two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis showed that 5-MTP might modulate growth-associated proteins, cytoskeleton regulation, redox regulation and protein folding to stimulate wound healing as well as prevent these ischemia reperfusion-damaged cardiomyocytes from cell death through maintaining cellular redox-balance and reducing ER-stress. To our knowledge, we report for the first time the cell repair mechanism of 5-MTP against ischemia reperfusion-damage in cardiomyocytes based on cell biology and proteomic analysis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Lee C.-C.,National Hsinchu University of Education
Journal of Mathematical Physics | Year: 2014

The present article is concerned with the charge conserving Poisson-Boltzmann (CCPB) equation in high-dimensional bounded smooth domains. The CCPB equation is a Poisson-Boltzmann type of equation with nonlocal coefficients. First, under the Robin boundary condition, we get the existence of weak solutions to this equation. The main approach is variational, based on minimization of a logarithm-type energy functional. To deal with the regularity of weak solutions, we establish a maximum modulus estimate for the standard Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation to show that weak solutions of the CCPB equation are essentially bounded. Then the classical solutions follow from the elliptic regularity theorem. Second, a maximum principle for the CCPB equation is established. In particular, we show that in the case of global electroneutrality, the solution achieves both its maximum and minimum values at the boundary. However, in the case of global non-electroneutrality, the solution may attain its maximum value at an interior point. In addition, under certain conditions on the boundary, we show that the global non-electroneutrality implies pointwise nonelectroneutrality. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.


Wang T.-H.,National Hsinchu University of Education
Computers and Education | Year: 2011

This research adopts the Graduated Prompting Assessment Module of the WATA system (GPAM-WATA) and applies it to the remedial teaching of junior high school mathematics. The theoretical basis of the development of GPAM-WATA is the idea of 'graduated prompt approach' proposed by Campione and Brown (1985; 1987, pp. 92-95). In GPAM-WATA, when examinees fail to answer items correctly, they obtain instructional prompts (IPs) in a graduated way. This research developed the contents of IPs based on the mathematical problem-solving theory of Mayer (1992, pp. 458-460). A quasi-experimental design was adopted. Ninety-six junior high school seventh graders from three different classes participated in this research. The three classes were randomly divided into the GPAM-WATA group (n = 31), the N-WBT group (n = 31) and the PPT group (n = 34). All students received traditional mathematics instruction from the same teacher. After traditional mathematics instruction, all students took the pre-test of the summative assessment. The students in the three different groups then respectively received remedial teaching in the form of GPAM-WATA, normal Web-based test (N-WBT), and paper-and-pencil test (PPT). After the remedial teaching, all students took the post-test of the summative assessment. The results indicate that compared with other groups, performing remedial teaching using GPAM-WATA has significantly better effectiveness. Moreover, it is found that the IPs in GPAM-WATA are effective in remedial teaching for not only those students most lacking in different types of mathematical problem-solving knowledge but also all the other students. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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