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Huang H.-C.,National Hsinchu University of Education | Lin J.-K.,National Taiwan University
Food and Function | Year: 2012

Although green tea extract has been reported to suppress hyperlipidemia, it is unclear how tea extracts prepared from green, oolong, black and pu-erh teas modulate fatty acid synthase expression in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. In this animal study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic and hypoleptinemia effect of these four different tea leaves fed to male Wistar rats for 12 weeks. The results showed that a fructose-rich diet significantly elevated serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, insulin, and leptin concentrations, as compared with those in the control group. Interestingly, consuming tea leaves for 12 weeks almost normalized the serum triacylglycerols concentrations. Again, rats fed with fructose/green tea and fructose/pu-erh tea showed the greatest reduction in serum TG, cholesterol, insulin and leptin levels. In contrast, serum cholesterol and insulin concentrations of the fructose/oolong tea-fed rats did not normalize. The relative epididymal adipose tissue weight was lower in all rats supplemented with tea leaves than those fed with fructose alone. There was molecular evidence of improved lipid homeostasis according to fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression. Furthermore, supplementation of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves significantly decreased hepatic FAS mRNA and protein levels, and increased AMPK phosphorylation, compared with those of rats fed with fructose only. These findings suggest that the intake of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves ameliorated the fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperleptinemia state in part through the suppression of FAS protein levels and increased AMPK phosphorylation. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Wang P.-Y.,National Chiayi University | Yang H.-C.,National Hsinchu University of Education
Computers and Education | Year: 2012

This study examined the impact of collaborative filtering (the so-called recommender) on college students' use of an online forum for English learning. The forum was created with an open-source software, Drupal.; its extended recommender module. This study was guided by three main questions: 1) Is there any difference in online behaviors between students who use a traditional forum and students who use a forum with a recommender?; 2) Is there any difference in learning motivation between students who use a traditional forum and students who use a forum with a recommender?; 3) Is there any difference in learning achievement between students who use a traditional forum and students who use a forum with a recommender?. This study was a one-way quasi-experimental design where the independent variable was the type of forum (two levels: traditional forum and forum with recommender). Students registering in four sessions of a college English course participated in the study and were randomly assigned into two groups. The total sample number was 144. The whole experiment lasted eight weeks. All students took a diagnostic test as a pre-test in Week One. From Week Two to Week Seven, students joined the class and wrote summaries, reflections and comments on the online forum. Students in different groups went on different forums. All students were asked to participate in a midterm exam in Week Four.; a final exam and online survey in Week Eight. Data collected in this study included pre-test scores, midterm exam scores (receptive and productive language test scores), final exam scores (receptive and productive language test scores), online survey (motivation and recommender perception).; Weblog data. The data were analyzed by using ANOVA procedure and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U-test. The findings were as follows: 1) Students in the group with the forum recommender read online posts more frequently than the control group.; 2) students with the forum recommender outperformed their counterparts in their productive language test scores. However, there was no significant difference in learning motivation between the two groups. To enhance motivation for using the recommender, students offered their comments on how to revise the recommender, such as making the recommendation rating more personalized and explicit. This study is expected to provide empirical evidence to recommender research in education as well as broaden innovative insights into instructional recommender design. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Wang T.-H.,National Hsinchu University of Education
Computers and Education | Year: 2010

This research combines the idea of cake format dynamic assessment defined by Sternberg and Grigorenko (2001) and the 'graduated prompt approach' proposed by Campione and Brown (1985, 1987) to develop a multiple-choice Web-based dynamic assessment system. This research adopts a quasi-experimental design to investigate the effectiveness of this Web-based dynamic assessment system (GPAM-WATA) and normal Web-based test (N-WBT). One hundred and sixteen sixth grade elementary students from four classes participated in this research. These four classes were randomly divided into the GPAM-WATA group and N-WBT group. Before e-Learning instruction, all the students took the prior knowledge assessment and the pre-test of the summative assessment. After 2-week e-Learning instruction, all the students took the post-test of the summative assessment. The research findings show that students in the GPAM-WATA group experience better e-Learning effectiveness than those in the N-WBT group. GPAM-WATA is also found to be effective in improving the e-Learning effectiveness of students with low-level prior knowledge. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Wang T.-H.,National Hsinchu University of Education
Computers and Education | Year: 2011

This research adopts the Graduated Prompting Assessment Module of the WATA system (GPAM-WATA) and applies it to the remedial teaching of junior high school mathematics. The theoretical basis of the development of GPAM-WATA is the idea of 'graduated prompt approach' proposed by Campione and Brown (1985; 1987, pp. 92-95). In GPAM-WATA, when examinees fail to answer items correctly, they obtain instructional prompts (IPs) in a graduated way. This research developed the contents of IPs based on the mathematical problem-solving theory of Mayer (1992, pp. 458-460). A quasi-experimental design was adopted. Ninety-six junior high school seventh graders from three different classes participated in this research. The three classes were randomly divided into the GPAM-WATA group (n = 31), the N-WBT group (n = 31) and the PPT group (n = 34). All students received traditional mathematics instruction from the same teacher. After traditional mathematics instruction, all students took the pre-test of the summative assessment. The students in the three different groups then respectively received remedial teaching in the form of GPAM-WATA, normal Web-based test (N-WBT), and paper-and-pencil test (PPT). After the remedial teaching, all students took the post-test of the summative assessment. The results indicate that compared with other groups, performing remedial teaching using GPAM-WATA has significantly better effectiveness. Moreover, it is found that the IPs in GPAM-WATA are effective in remedial teaching for not only those students most lacking in different types of mathematical problem-solving knowledge but also all the other students. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


This research refers to the self-regulated learning strategies proposed by Pintrich (1999) in developing a multiple-choice Web-based assessment system, the Peer-Driven Assessment Module of the Web-based Assessment and Test Analysis system (PDA-WATA). The major purpose of PDA-WATA is to facilitate learner use of self-regulatory learning behaviors to perform self-regulated learning and in turn improve e-Learning effectiveness. PDA-WATA includes five main strategies: 'Adding Answer Notes,' 'Stating Confidence,' 'Reading Peer Answer Notes,' 'Recommending Peer Answer Notes' and 'Querying Peers' Recommendation on Personal Answer Notes'. Using these strategies, examinees are allowed to add answer notes to explain why they chose a certain option as the correct answer and state their confidence in their own answer and answer notes, for peers' reference. In addition to reading peer answer notes, examinees can also recommend peer answer notes as valuable references. The recommendation information can also be queried by all examinees. Quasi-experimental design was adopted to understand the effectiveness of PDA-WATA in facilitating learner use of self-regulatory learning behaviors to perform self-regulated learning and in improving learner e-Learning effectiveness. Participants were 123 seventh-grade junior high school students from four classes. These four classes were randomly divided into the PDA-WATA group (n = 63) and the N-WBT group (n = 60). Before e-Learning instruction, all students took the pre-test of the Learning Process Inventory (LPI), used to understand how often learners use self-regulatory learning behaviors in the learning process, and the pre-test of the summative assessment. After a two-week e-Learning instruction, the students all took the post-test of the LPI and the summative assessment. Results indicate that students in the PDA-WATA group appear to be more willing to take the Web-based formative assessment than students in the N-WBT group. In addition, PDA-WATA appears to be significantly more effective than N-WBT in facilitating learner use of self-regulatory learning behaviors to perform self-regulated learning and in improving their e-Learning effectiveness. Moreover, this research also finds that in the PDA-WATA group, there is no significant difference between the learning effectiveness of students with a low level of self-regulated learning and students with a high level of self-regulated learning, but similar result cannot be found in the N-WBT group. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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