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Sueoka-Aragane N.,Saga University | Katakami N.,Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation | Satouchi M.,Hyogo Cancer Center | Yokota S.,National Hospital Organization Toneyama National Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Science | Year: 2016

Use of plasma DNA to detect mutations has spread widely as a form of liquid biopsy. EGFR T790M has been observed in half of lung cancer patients who have acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI). Effectiveness of monitoring T790M via plasma DNA during treatment with EGFR-TKI has not been established as an alternative to re-biopsy. This was a prospective multicenter observational study involving non-small cell lung cancer patients carrying EGFR L858R or exon 19 deletions, treated with EGFR-TKI. The primary objective was to determine whether T790M could be detected using plasma DNA in patients with progressive disease (PD). T790M was examined using the mutation-biased PCR and quenching probe (MBP-QP) method, a sensitive, fully-automated system developed in our laboratory. Eighty-nine non-small cell lung cancer patients were enrolled from seven hospitals in Japan. Sequential examinations revealed T790M in plasma DNA among 40% of patients who developed PD. Activating mutations, such as L858R and exon 19 deletions, were detected in 40% of patients using plasma DNA, and either T790M or activating mutations were observed in 62%. Dividing into four periods (before PD, at PD, at discontinuation of EGFR-TKI and subsequently), T790M was detected in 10, 19, 24 and 27% of patients, respectively. Smokers, males, patients having exon 19 deletions and patients who developed new lesions evidenced significantly frequent presence of T790M in plasma DNA. Monitoring T790M with plasma DNA using MBP-QP reflects the clinical course of lung cancer patients treated with EGFR-TKI. Detection of T790M with plasma DNA was correlated with EGFR mutation type, exon 19 deletions and tumor progression. Re-biopsy could be performed only in 14% of PD cases, suggesting difficulty in obtaining re-biopsy specimens in practice. Monitoring T790M with plasma DNA reflects the clinical course, and is potentially useful in designing strategies for subsequent treatment. © 2016 Japanese Cancer Association.

Aoe K.,National Hospital Organization Yamaguchi Ube Medical Center | Amatya V.J.,Hiroshima University | Fujimoto N.,Okayama Rosai Hospital | Ohnuma K.,Research Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive and therapy-resistant neoplasm arising from the pleural mesothelial cells, without established indicators to predict responsiveness to chemotherapy. Experimental Design: Our study involving 79 MPM patients showed that 73.4% of MPM expressed CD26 on cell membrane. Results: The majority of epithelioid and biphasic types of MPM expressed CD26 on the cell membrane, whereas the sarcomatoid type showed a lack of CD26 surface expression. Although the sarcomatoid type was associated with poor prognosis (P < 0.0001), no significant relationship between CD26 expression and survival was observed. On the contrary, there was a trend for an association between response rate to chemotherapy and CD26 expression (P = 0.053), with a higher level of CD26 expression more likely to be linked to better response to chemotherapy. Moreover, CD26 expression was a significant factor associated with improved survival in patients who received chemotherapy [median survival time (MST), 18.6 vs. 10.7 months, P = 0.0083]. Furthermore, CD26 expression was significantly associated with better prognosis in patients receiving non-pemetrexed-containing regimens (MST, 14.2 vs. 7.4 months, P = 0.0042), whereas there was no significant association between CD26 expression and survival time for patients receiving pemetrexed-containing regimens. Our in vitro and microarray studies showed that mesothelioma cells expressing high CD26 displayed high proliferative activity, and CD26 expression was closely linked to cell-cycle regulation, apoptosis, and chemotherapy resistance. Conclusions: Our results strongly suggest that CD26 is a clinically significant biomarker for predicting response to chemotherapy for MPM. ©2012 AACR.

Nojiri S.,University of Tokyo | Gemba K.,Japan Labor Health and Welfare Organization Okayama Rosai Hospital | Aoe K.,National Hospital Organization Yamaguchi Ube Medical Center | Kato K.,Okayama University | And 4 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2011

Objective: The objective in our study was to examine baseline and other characteristics associated with survival in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma in Japan. Methods: Three hundred and fourteen patients with an adjudicated diagnosis of mesothelioma were examined. Survival was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test. The Cox model was used to estimate the hazard ratio for the possible prognostic factors. Results: Of 314 patients, 223 (71%) died and only 40 (13%) were still alive at the end of the observation period starting from the day of diagnosis, while 51 (16%) were transferred to other hospitals or had the last health service contact before the end of the study period yielding the median survival of 308 days. In the multivariate analysis, age older than 70 years (hazard ratio = 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-3.46), non-epithelioid type (hazard ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.18), poor performance status (hazard ratio = 3.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-8.74), high white blood cell count (hazard ratio = 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-2.26) and high C-reactive protein level (hazard ratio = 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-3.06) were negatively associated with survival, after adjustment for other factors. Conclusions: Some baseline conditions including old age, poor performance status, non-epithelioid type, high white blood cell count and high C-reactive protein level were determinants of poor survival of patients with malignant mesothelioma. © The Author (2010). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Gemba K.,Okayama Rosai Hospital | Gemba K.,National Hospital Organization Fukuyama Medical Center | Fujimoto N.,Okayama Rosai Hospital | Kato K.,Okayama University | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Science | Year: 2012

In the present study, malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases in Japan were investigated retrospectively. We extracted records for 6030 cases of death due to MM between 2003 and 2008 to clarify the clinical features of MM, including its association with asbestos exposure (AE). Of all these cases, a clinical diagnosis of MM was confirmed for 929. The origin of MM included the pleura in 794 cases (85.5%), the peritoneum in 123 cases (13.2%), the pericardium in seven cases (0.8%), and the testicular tunica vaginalis in five cases (0.5%). The histological subtypes of MM included 396 epithelioid (55.9%), 154 sarcomatoid (21.7%), 126 biphasic (17.8%), and 33 cases (4.7%) classified as "other types". Of all the MM cases, AE was indicated in 76.8% and pleural plaques were detected in 34.2%. The number of asbestos particles was determined in 103 cases of MM. More than 1000 asbestos particles per gram dried lung tissue were detected in 74.8% of cases and more than 5000 particles were detected in 43.7% of cases. We compared patient characteristics and the diagnostic procedures for MM before and after the "Kubota shock". Compared with the early phase of this study (2003-2005), the median age at diagnosis of MM was higher, the number of cases without definite diagnosis of MM was lower, the proportion of cases diagnosed by thoracoscopy was higher, and the percentage of cases in which the occupational history was described in the medical records was significantly higher in the later phase (2006-2008). Our study confirmed that more than 70% of MM cases in Japan are associated with AE. The "Kubota shock" may affect some features pertaining to MM. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

Okamoto I.,Kyushu University | Sakai K.,Kinki University | Morita S.,Kyoto University | Yoshioka H.,Kurashiki Central Hospital | And 24 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2014

Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens were collected from advanced NSCLC patients enrolled in LETS phase III trial comparing first-line S-1/carboplatin with paclitaxel/carboplatin and subjected to multiplex genotyping for 214 somatic hotspot mutations in 26 genes (LungCarta Panel) and 20 major variants of ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusion genes (LungFusion Panel) with the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. MET amplification was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. A somatic mutation in at least one gene was identified in 48% of non-squamous cell carcinoma and 45% of squamous cell carcinoma specimens, with EGFR (17%), TP53 (11%), STK11 (9.8%), MET (7.6%), and KRAS (6.2%). Mutations in EGFR or KRAS were associated with a longer or shorter median overall survival, respectively. The LungFusion Panel identified ALK fusions in six cases (2.5%), ROS1 fusions in five cases (2.1%), and a RET fusion in one case (0.4%), with these three types of rearrangement being mutually exclusive. Nine (3.9%) of 229 patients were found to be positive for de novo MET amplification. This first multiplex genotyping of NSCLC associated with a phase III trial shows that MassARRAY-based genetic testing for somatic mutations and fusion genes performs well with nucleic acid derived from FFPE specimens of NSCLC tissue.

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