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Yamanaka H.,National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital
Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong)

To review clinical results of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with large bone defects of the tibial condyle. Records of 33 knees in 27 women and 3 men aged 44 to 80 (mean, 63.6) years who underwent primary TKA for RA with large tibial bone defects were reviewed. 16 knees had peripheral defects extending to the bone cortex, whereas 17 knees had central defects that did not extend to the bone cortex. The femorotibial angle (FTA) was <170o in 15 knees, 170o to 180o in 3 knees, and >180o in 15 knees. The mean duration of RA was 13.5 (range, 3-35) years. In 14 knees with severe bone defects, bone grafts (harvested from articular surfaces of knee bones and fixed without screws or Kirschner wires) and/ or metal wedges (for peripheral defects) were used to fill the defects. Clinical outcome was assessed pre- and post-operatively using Knee Society scores. The mean follow-up duration was 6.3 (range, 2.3-13.2) years. The mean depth of tibial bone defects was 11.2 (range, 1-25) mm, whereas the mean width ratio of the bone defects was 36.5% (range, 16.4-76.9%). Mean extension and flexion (range of motion) improved from -12.5o and 113.4o to -5.1o and 115.6o, respectively. The mean Knee Society knee score improved from 35 (range, 21-59) to 85 (range, 49-95), whereas the mean Knee Society function score improved from 30 (range, 25-53) to 80 (range, 44-97) [p<0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test]. The cruciate retention prosthesis was used in 6 knees; the posterior stabilised prosthesis was used in 27 knees; and the constrained condylar knee prosthesis was used in 3 knees. No patient had any infection or implant loosening. TKA achieved favourable outcome for RA patients with large tibial bone defects. The type of prosthesis used and the use of bone grafts and/ or metal wedges were based on the depth and width ratio of the bone defects. Source

Yokota M.,Chiba University | Suzuki K.,Chiba University | Tokoyoda K.,Chiba University | Meguro K.,Chiba University | And 8 more authors.
Arthritis Research and Therapy

Introduction: In addition to the pivotal roles of mast cells in allergic diseases, recent data suggest that mast cells play crucial roles in a variety of autoimmune responses. However, their roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune skeletal muscle diseases have not been clarified despite their distribution in skeletal muscle. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the roles of mast cells in the development of autoimmune skeletal muscle diseases.Methods: The number of mast cells in the affected muscle was examined in patients with dermatomyositis (DM) or polymyositis (PM). The susceptibility of mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-KitW/KitWv mice (W/Wv mice) to a murine model of polymyositis, C protein-induced myositis (CIM), was compared with that of wild-type (WT) mice. The effect of mast cell reconstitution with bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) on the susceptibility of W/Wv mice to CIM was also evaluated.Results: The number of mast cells in the affected muscle increased in patients with PM as compared with patients with DM. W/Wv mice exhibited significantly reduced disease incidence and histological scores of CIM as compared with WT mice. The number of CD8+ T cells and macrophages in the skeletal muscles of CIM decreased in W/Wv mice compared with WT mice. Engraftment of BMMCs restored the incidence and histological scores of CIM in W/Wv mice. Vascular permeability in the skeletal muscle was elevated in WT mice but not in W/Wv mice upon CIM induction.Conclusion: Mast cells are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathy. © 2014 Yokota et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Matsuda S.,Institute for Clinical Research | Nakamura M.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Hirano E.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Kiyota N.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases

Epidemics of infectious diseases often occur at long-term inpatient facilities for patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. However, the pathogens causing these infections remain unknown in approximately half of such epidemics. Two epidemics of respiratory tract infection occurred in 2 wards in the National Hospital Organization Ehime Hospital (prevalence 1, 34 infected out of 59 inpatients in the A ward in September 2011; prevalence 2, 8 infected out of 58 inpatients in the B ward in June 2012). Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was detected from the nasal (and some pharyngeal) swabs from 17 patients. Based on phylogenetic analysis of viral genomes, the virus was grouped in subgroup A2 (prevalence 1) and B2 (prevalence 2). We considered that the viruses had spread through the 2 wards. The average duration of high fever in the 42 patients was 6.8 days, with the majority of fevers exceeding 389C (79z) and being accompanied by a productive cough. Ten out of 17 patients (59z) in whom HMPV was detected had decreased lymphocyte and increased monocyte counts in the blood. Eleven cases (65z) had elevated-C reactive protein levels and fever protraction as well as images of bronchitis or pneumonia on chest radiographs approximately 1 week after onset. Anti-HMPV antibody in the blood was positive in 95z of patients (151 of 159 inpatients), indicating no relation between HMPV infection and antibody titer but revealing recurrent infections. In view of the fever protraction and frequent co-occurrence of bronchitis and pneumonia at long-term inpatient facilities for immunocompromised patients such as the ones in this study, the prevalence of HMPV must be carefully monitored, and preventive measures and early-stage treatments are required. Source

Yamanaka H.,National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital | Goto K.-I.,National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital | Suzuki M.,National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research

Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common form of treatment to relieve pain and improve function in cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Good clinical outcomes have been reported with a variety of TKA prostheses. The cementless Hi-Tech Knee II cruciate-retaining (CR)-type prosthesis, which has 6 fins at the anterior of the femoral component, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) retention, flat-on-flat surface component geometry, all-polyethylene patella, strong initial fixation by the center screw of the tibial base plate, 10 layers of titanium alloy fiber mesh, and direct compression molded ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), is appropriate for TKA in the Japanese knee.The present study was performed to evaluate the clinical results of primary TKA in RA using the cementless Hi-Tech Knee II CR-type prosthesis.Materials and methods: We performed 32 consecutive primary TKAs using cementless Hi-Tech Knee II CR-type prosthesis in 31 RA patients. The average follow-up period was 8 years 3 months. Clinical evaluations were performed according to the American Knee Society (KS) system, knee score, function score, radiographic evaluation, and complications.Results: The mean postoperative maximum flexion angle was 115.6°, and the KS knee score and function score improved to 88 and 70 after surgery, respectively. Complications, such as infection, occurred in 1 patient and revision surgery was performed. There were no cases of loosening in this cohort, and prosthesis survival rate was 96.9% at 12 years postoperatively.Conclusion: These results suggest that TKA using the cementless Hi-Tech Knee II CR-type prosthesis is a very effective form of treatment in RA patients at 5 to 12 years postoperatively. Further long-term follow-up studies are required to determine the ultimate utility of this type of prosthesis. © 2012 Yamanaka et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Tomizawa M.,National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital | Kawanabe Y.,Sato Clinic | Shinozaki F.,National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital | Sato S.,Sato Clinic | And 4 more authors.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

In the present study, the threshold values of laboratory data for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated. The study enrolled patients who had undergone abdominal ultrasound (US) between April 2013 and August 2013, and for whom laboratory data were available on the same day. NAFLD was diagnosed following observations of a bright liver or hepatorenal echo contrast on the abdominal US scans. Patients were excluded from the study if they had liver diseases or had been prescribed prednisolone or methotrexate. Receiver operating characteristic curves, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Fisher's exact probability test were used for data analysis. In total, 80 NAFLD and 94 non-NAFLD patients were enrolled in the study. The threshold levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and triglyceride (TG) for the diagnosis of NAFLD were 19.0 IU/l and 101 mg/dl, respectively. Patients were divided into two groups according to the levels of ALT and TG. Those with ALT levels of >19 IU/l and TG levels of >101 mg/dl were defined as the positive group, while the remaining patients were classified as the negative group. The specificity and positive predictive value using the combined threshold levels of ALT >19 IU/l and TG >101 mg/dl were 80.9 and 75.0%, respectively. Therefore, the results indicated that ALT levels of >19 IU/l or TG levels of >101 mg/dl were useful markers for the screening of NAFLD. However, NAFLD was more strongly suspected in patients with ALT levels of >19 IU/l and TG levels of >101 mg/dl. Source

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