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Tokai Y.,Nagasaki University | Maeda S.,Nagasaki University | Yamaguchi J.,National Hospital Organization Saga Hospital | Uga T.,Nagasaki University | And 4 more authors.
International Surgery | Year: 2011

Overexpression of low-molecular-weight isoforms (LMWI) of cyclin E in breast cancer cells is associated with poor prognosis and could serve a novel role in breast cancer progression. LMWI originate from proteolytic processing of cyclin E, which is deregulated and hyperactive. In this study, levels of full-form/LMWI cyclin E were determined with the use of Western blot analysis in 69 Japanese breast cancer patients. LMWI cyclin E levels were significantly correlated with known parameters such as tumor grade and estrogen/progesterone receptor expression. In multivariate analysis, patient survival was significantly correlated with tumor grade but not with either form of cyclin E. LMWI was not as strong a predictor as tumor grade in this study, whereas some cases of early relapse with LMWI overexpression and lower tumor grade were reported. Thus, LMWI might be a good complementary factor to other predictors for early relapse of breast cancer.

Kiper P.O.S.,University of Lausanne | Kiper P.O.S.,Hacettepe University | Saito H.,Harvard University | Gori F.,Harvard University | And 22 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Cortical-bone fragility is a common feature in osteoporosis that is linked to nonvertebral fractures. Regulation of cortical-bone homeostasis has proved elusive. The study of genetic disorders of the skeleton can yield insights that fuel experimental therapeutic approaches to the treatment of rare disorders and common skeletal ailments. METHODS: We evaluated four patients with Pyle's disease, a genetic disorder that is characterized by cortical-bone thinning, limb deformity, and fractures; two patients were examined by means of exome sequencing, and two were examined by means of Sanger sequencing. After a candidate gene was identified, we generated a knockout mouse model that manifested the phenotype and studied the mechanisms responsible for altered bone architecture. RESULTS: In all affected patients, we found biallelic truncating mutations in SFRP4, the gene encoding secreted frizzled-related protein 4, a soluble Wnt inhibitor. Mice deficient in Sfrp4, like persons with Pyle's disease, have increased amounts of trabecular bone and unusually thin cortical bone, as a result of differential regulation of Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in these two bone compartments. Treatment of Sfrp4-deficient mice with a soluble Bmp2 receptor (RAP-661) or with antibodies to sclerostin corrected the cortical-bone defect. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that Pyle's disease was caused by a deficiency of sFRP4, that cortical bone and trabecular-bone homeostasis were governed by different mechanisms, and that sFRP4-mediated cross-regulation between Wnt and BMP signaling was critical for achieving proper cortical-bone thickness and stability. Copyright © 2016 Massachusetts Medical Society.

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