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Ishikawa Y.,Nagoya University | Tateyama H.,Clinical Laboratory | Yoshida M.,Clinical Laboratory | Takami K.,National Hospital Organization Osaka Medical Center | And 8 more authors.
Histopathology | Year: 2015

Aims: Micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma (MNT) is an uncommon variant of thymoma, characterized by multiple small nodules consisting of type A thymoma-like cells, which are separated by abundant B lymphocytes. The aim of the study was to elucidate the pathogenesis of the stromal lymphoid hyperplasia, which is currently unclear. Methods and results: We retrieved six cases of MNT, and immunohistochemically examined the number and distribution of Langerhans cells (LCs) and mature dendritic cells (DCs), and compared them with those in type A and type AB thymomas. Many LCs were present within the small tumour nests, but LCs were rarely seen in the stroma (75.5/HPF versus 6.1/HPF, P < 0.0001). In contrast, mature DCs were present mainly in the surrounding stroma rather than within the tumour nodules (63.5/HPF versus 6.0/HPF, P < 0.0001), forming clusters with mature T lymphocytes adjacent to lymphoid follicles. In large nodules, as well as in type A and type AB thymomas, a few scattered LCs and DCs were identified. All patients were still alive and well. Conclusions: Our results suggest that LCs take up tumour antigens and migrate to the stroma, where they mature and form clusters with T lymphocytes to activate them, resulting in lymphoid follicle formation. The favourable clinical behaviour may be attributable to the immune response induced by LCs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Nishizawa T.,National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center | Suzuki H.,Keio University | Maekawa T.,National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center | Harada N.,National Kyushu Medical Center | And 16 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of a dual therapy with rabeprazole and amoxicillin (AMX) as an empiric third-line rescue therapy. In patients with failure of first-line treatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-AMX-clarithromycin regimen and second-line treatment with the PPI-AMX-metronidazole regimen, a third-line eradication regimen with rabeprazole (10 mg q.i.d.) and AMX (500 mg q.i.d.) was prescribed for 2 wk. Eradication was confirmed by the results of the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) at 12 wk after the therapy. A total of 46 patients were included; however, two were lost to follow-up. The eradication rates as determined by per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses were 65.9% and 63.0%,respectively. The pretreatment UBT results in the subjects showing eradication failure; those patients showing successful eradication comprised 32.9 ± 28.8 permil and 14.8 ± 12.8 permil, respectively. The pretreatment UBT results in the subjects with eradication failure were significantly higher than those in the patients with successful eradication (P= 0.019). A low pretreatment UBT result (≤ 28.5 permil) predicted the success of the eradication therapy with a positive predictive value of 81.3% and a sensitivity of 89.7%. Adverse effects were reported in 18.2% of the patients, mainly diarrhea and stomatitis. Dual therapy with rabeprazole and AMX appears to serve as a potential empirical third-line strategy for patients with low values on pretreatment UBT. © 2012 Baishideng. All rights reserved.

Imasawa T.,National Hospital Organization Chiba East Hospital | Nakazato T.,National Hospital Organization Chiba Medical Center | Ikehira H.,National Hospital Organization Chiba East Hospital | Fujikawa H.,National Hospital Organization Chiba East Hospital | And 15 more authors.
BMC Nephrology | Year: 2012

Background: The nephron number is thought to be associated with the outcome of chronic kidney disease (CKD). If the nephron number can be estimated in the clinical setting, it could become a strong tool to predict renal outcome. This study was designed to estimate the nephron number in CKD patients and to establish a method to predict the outcome by using the estimated nephron number. Methods/Design. The hypothesis of this study is that the estimated nephron number can predict the outcome of a CKD patient. This will be a multicenter, prospective (minimum 3 and maximum 5 years follow-up) study. The subjects will comprise CKD patients aged over 14 years who have undergone a kidney biopsy. From January 2011 to March 2013, we will recruit 600 CKD patients from 10 hospitals belonging to the National Hospital Organization of Japan. The primary parameter for assessment is the composite of total mortality, renal death, cerebro-cardiovascular events, and a 50% reduction in the eGFR. The secondary parameter is the rate of eGFR decline per year. The nephron number will be estimated by the glomerular density in biopsy specimens and the renal cortex volume. This study includes one sub-cohort study to establish the equation to calculate the renal cortex volume. Enrollment will be performed at the time of the kidney biopsy, and the data will consist of a medical interview, ultrasound for measurement of the kidney size, blood or urine test, and the pathological findings of the kidney biopsy. Patients will continue to have medical consultations and receive examinations and/or treatment as usual. The data from the patients will be collected once a year after the kidney biopsy until March 2016. All data using this study are easily obtained in routine clinical practice. Discussion. This study includes the first trials to estimate the renal cortex volume and nephron number in the general clinical setting. Furthermore, this is the first prospective study to examine whether the nephron number predicts the outcome of CKD patients. The results from this study should provide powerful new tools for nephrologists in routine clinical practice. Trial registration. UMIN-Clinical Trial Registration, UMIN000004784. © 2012 Imasawa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Oshikiri T.,Hyogo Cancer Center | Kawasaki K.,Hyogo Cancer Center | Kanaji S.,Hyogo Cancer Center | Tominaga M.,Hyogo Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
Esophagus | Year: 2013

Amelanotic primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus (PMME) is extremely rare. We report a case of amelanotic PMME that was accurately diagnosed and subsequently treated by radical resection with adjuvant chemotherapy. A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of dysphagia. Endoscopic examination revealed a tumor without pigmentation in the upper thoracic esophagus, and melanosis in the lower thoracic esophagus. Tumor biopsy showed proliferation of malignant spindle cells with conspicuous nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for melanosomes (HMB45). The tumor was diagnosed as PMME. Positron emission tomography and computed tomography showed accumulation of the tracer only in the primary lesion. The preoperative diagnosis according to the extent of the tumor, whether cancer cells have spread to lymph nodes, and whether metastasis has occurred (TNM) classification was malignant melanoma in the upper third of the esophagus, T2N0M0 stage IIA. The patient underwent minimally invasive video assisted esophagectomy in the prone position with three-field lymph node dissection. On the resected specimen, the malignant cells were positive for HMB45, KIT, and melan-A. Masson-Fontana staining demonstrated no melanin pigmentation. The patient was diagnosed with amelanotic PMME and received adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen. The patient showed no systemic metastasis, and is alive 18 months after the operation with no evidence of recurrence. © 2012 The Japan Esophageal Society and Springer Japan.

Nishimura M.,National Hospital Organization Chiba East National Hospital | Kato Y.,National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center | Tanaka T.,National Hospital Organization Mie Chuo Medical Center | Todo R.,National Hospital Organization Osaka Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
Hypertension Research | Year: 2013

The Home Blood Pressure for Diabetic Nephropathy (HBP-DN) study is a prospective cohort study to determine the optimal home blood pressure (HBP) required to improve the prognosis of type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is heterogeneous in microalbuminuric diabetic patients. The first step of the HBP-DN study explored the significance of estimating GFR for the identification of patients for whom HBP measurement would be more helpful. The patients were divided into two groups based on their estimated GFR (eGFR): a low eGFR group (eGFR <60 ml min -1 per 1.73 m2, N=75) and a preserved eGFR group (eGFR ≥60 ml min-1 per 1.73 m2, N=193). HBP, variability of HBP and a previous history of vascular complications were compared between the two groups. The number of antihypertensive drugs used for the patients and the s.d. of home systolic blood pressure (HSBP) in the low eGFR group were significantly higher than those in the preserved eGFR group. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis also revealed that the low eGFR group was independently correlated with the s.d. of HSBP. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that a low eGFR was an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease and advanced retinopathy. Estimating the GFR is important to identify patients with elevated blood pressure variability, as well as those with a high risk of vascular complications. Measuring HBP would be more helpful for the effective and safe treatment of hypertension in patients with a low eGFR than in those with a preserved eGFR. © 2013 The Japanese Society of Hypertension. All rights reserved.

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