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Kikuchi A.,Teikyo University | Yabe H.,Tokai University | Kato K.,Red Cross | Koh K.,Saitama Childrens Medical Center | And 9 more authors.
Bone Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2013

We report long-term outcomes of 329 childhood severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients who underwent hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) from an HLA-matched sibling donor in the Japanese Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Registry. OS and EFS at 10 years were as high as 89.7+/-1.7% and 85.5+/-2.0%, respectively. Five cases of late malignancies (LM) were identified (malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, thyroid carcinoma, colon carcinoma, MDS and hepatoblastoma). Cumulative incidence of LM was 0.8% at 10 years and 2.5% at 20 years, respectively, which was lower than that in previous reports. This low incidence is in keeping with the low occurrence of skin cancer in Japanese population and of acute GVHD in our study group. Radiation-containing conditioning was not significantly associated with the incidence of LM after HSCT probably because of absolute low patient number who developed LM in our series. In terms of LM development after HSCT, low-dose TBI in HSCT for SAA to avoid graft rejection, which is commonly used in Japan, might be tolerable in the Japanese population because of its low incidence. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Ishida T.,Nagoya City University | Jo T.,Red Cross | Suzushima H.,Kumamoto Shinto General Hospital | Uozumi K.,Kagoshima University | And 16 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2015

This multicentre, randomized, phase II study was conducted to examine whether the addition of mogamulizumab, a humanized anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 antibody, to mLSG15, a dose-intensified chemotherapy, further increases efficacy without compromising safety of patients with newly diagnosed aggressive adult T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma (ATL). Patients were assigned 1:1 to receive mLSG15 plus mogamulizumab or mLSG15 alone. The primary endpoint was the complete response rate (%CR); secondary endpoints included the overall response rate (ORR) and safety. The %CR and ORR in the mLSG15-plus-mogamulizumab arm (n = 29) were 52% [95% confidence interval (CI), 33-71%] and 86%, respectively; the corresponding values in the mLSG15 arm (n = 24) were 33% (95% CI, 16-55%) and 75%, respectively. Grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events, including anaemia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, leucopenia and decreased appetite, were observed more frequently (≥10% difference) in the mLSG15-plus-mogamulizumab arm. Several adverse events, including skin disorders, cytomegalovirus infection, pyrexia, hyperglycaemia and interstitial lung disease, were observed only in the mLSG15-plus-mogamulizumab arm. Although the combination strategy showed a potentially less favourable safety profile, a higher %CR was achieved, providing the basis for further investigation of this novel treatment for newly diagnosed aggressive ATL. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01173887. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Driskell I.,University of Cambridge | Oda H.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Oda H.,National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center | Blanco S.,University of Cambridge | And 3 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2012

Setd8/PR-Set7/KMT5a-dependent mono-methylation of histone H4 at lysine 20 is essential for mitosis of cultured cells; yet, the functional roles of Setd8 in complex mammalian tissues are unknown. We use skin as a model system to explore how Setd8 may regulate cell division in vivo. Deletion of Setd8 in undifferentiated layers of the mouse epidermis impaired both proliferation and differentiation processes. Long-lived epidermal progenitor cells are lost in the absence of Setd8, leading to an irreversible loss of sebaceous glands and interfollicular epidermis. We show that Setd8 is a transcriptional target of c-Myc and an essential mediator of Myc-induced epidermal differentiation. Deletion of Setd8 in c-Myc-overexpressing skin blocks proliferation and differentiation and causes apoptosis. Increased apoptosis may be explained by our discovery that p63, an essential transcription factor for epidermal commitment is lost, while p53 is gained upon removal of Setd8. Both overexpression of p63 and deletion of p53 rescue Setd8-induced apoptosis. Thus, Setd8 is a crucial inhibitor of apoptosis in skin and its activity is essential for epidermal stem cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. © 2012 European Molecular Biology Organization | All Rights Reserved.

Murata A.,Kumamoto University | Baba Y.,Kumamoto University | Ishimoto T.,Kumamoto University | Miyake K.,Kumamoto University | And 12 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

Mammalian DNA is epigenetically marked by 5'-cytosine methylation (5-methylcytosine [5-mC]). The Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes (TET1, TET2, and TET3) are implicated in DNA demethylation, through dioxygenase activity that converts 5-mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC). Although decreased TET is reportedly associated with decreased 5-hmC levels in various cancers, functions of 5-hmC and TET expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are unclear. We used ELISA and immunohistochemistry tests to analyze 5-hmC status in ESCC tissues, RT-qPCR to analyze TET family mRNA expression in normal and tumor tissues, and pyrosequencing to quantify LINE-1 (i.e., global DNA methylation) levels. ELISA and immunohistochemical testing showed 5-hmC levels were significantly lower in ESCC than in paired normal tissues (P < 0.0001). TET2 expression was significantly lower in ESCCs than paired normal tissues (P < 0.0001), and significantly associated with 5-hmC levels in ESCCs (P = 0.003, r = 0.33). 5-hmC levels were also significantly associated with LINE-1 methylation level (P = 0.0002, r = 0.39). Patients with low 5-hmC levels had shorter overall survival than those with higher levels, although not significantly so (P = 0.084). In conclusion, 5-hmC expression was decreased in ESCC tissues, and was associated with TET2 expression level. TET2 reduction and subsequent 5-hmC loss might affect ESCC development.

Hironaka S.,Chiba Cancer Center | Sugimoto N.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute | Yamaguchi K.,Saitama Cancer Center | Moriwaki T.,University of Tsukuba | And 15 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2016

Background: Although leucovorin enhances the efficacy of fluorouracil, the anti-tumour activity of S-1 and leucovorin and their combination with oxaliplatin for patients with advanced gastric cancer is unknown. We compared the activity and safety of S-1 plus leucovorin, S-1 plus leucovorin and oxaliplatin, and S-1 plus cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. Methods: In this multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial, we recruited chemotherapy-naive patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer with measurable lesions aged 20 years or older from 25 general hospitals and specialist centres in Japan. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) centrally to receive S-1 plus leucovorin (S-1 40-60 mg orally plus oral leucovorin 25 mg twice a day for 1 week, every 2 weeks), S-1 plus leucovorin and oxaliplatin (S-1 plus leucovorin and intravenous oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 on day 1, every 2 weeks), or S-1 plus cisplatin (S-1 40-60 mg orally twice a day for 3 weeks, plus intravenous cisplatin 60 mg/m2 on day 8, every 5 weeks). Randomisation was done with the minimisation method using performance status (0 vs 1) and tumour stage (stage IV vs recurrent) as stratification factors. The primary endpoint was independently reviewed overall response in the full analysis set. This trial is registered with Japic CTI, number 111635. Findings: Between Oct 20, 2011, and Dec 17, 2012, we enrolled and randomly assigned 145 patients: 49 patients were assigned to S-1 plus leucovorin, 47 to S-1 plus leucovorin and oxaliplatin, and 49 to S-1 plus cisplatin. An objective response assessed by the independent review committee was achieved in 20 (43% [95% CI 28·3-57·8]) of the 47 patients in the S-1 plus leucovorin group, 31 (66% [50·7-79·1]) of the 47 patients in the S-1 plus leucovorin and oxaliplatin group, and 22 (46% [31·4-60·8]) of the 48 patients in the S-1 plus cisplatin group (Fisher's exact test, p=0·84 for S-1 plus leucovorin vs S-1 plus cisplatin, p=0·063 for S-1 plus leucovorin and oxaliplatin vs S-1 plus cisplatin, and p=0·038 for S-1 plus leucovorin and oxaliplatin vs S-1 plus leucovorin). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (three [6%] of 48 patients in the S-1 plus leucovorin group vs 12 [26%] of 47 patients in the S-1 plus leucovorin and oxaliplatin group vs 17 [35%] of 49 patients in the S-1 plus cisplatin group), decreased appetite (six [13%] vs 14 [30%] vs 12 [24%]), anaemia (five [10%] vs seven [15%] vs 13 [27%]), and hyponatraemia (two [4%] vs two [4%] vs nine [18%]). Interpretation: S-1 plus leucovorin and oxaliplatin was more active than S-1 plus leucovorin or S-1 plus cisplatin with acceptable toxic effects for patients with advanced gastric cancer. A phase 3 trial comparing S-1 plus leucovorin and oxaliplatin with S-1 plus cisplatin is underway. Funding: Taiho Pharmaceutical. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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