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Morinaga S.,National Hospital Organization Kumamoto Medical Center
[Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology

Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) in children is a rare disorder. A 1-year-old girl presented to our hospital for evaluation of eosinophilia. At the onset, her white blood cell count in peripheral blood was 70,600/μl with 74% eosinophils. She had a high fever and mild hepatomegaly but had no remarkable evidence of organ involvement by CT, MRI and ultrasonography. She was diagnosed with IHES without any evidence of secondary eosinophilia, expression of the FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion transcript, chromosomal abnormalities, and aberrant T-cell populations. The serum IgE, vitamin B12, IL-5 and TARC levels were normal. Systemic administration of corticosteroid and suplatast tosilate resolved the symptoms promptly and resulted in improvement of eosinophilia. Source

Arita I.,National Hospital Organization Kumamoto Medical Center
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases

This year 2010 marks the 30th anniversary of smallpox eradication, as declared by the WHO Assembly in 1980. As someone who worked for this program for many years, I would like to present my recollection of how it succeeded and what lessons can be learnt, with the added benefit of hindsight. The program achieved the global unification of mankind despite differences in race, nationality, religion, and politics, and research contributed significantly to building the effective strategy that ultimately led to success. These lessons should be useful in a designing a planning solution for many of the problems we face in today's changing world, including problems regarding health security and even those in current and future socioeconomic regions. Source

Hiraki Y.,National Hospital Organization Kumamoto Medical Center
Kansenshōgaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases

Factors related to poor outcome in drug-resistant bacterial infection treatment were analyzed based on surveys at 54 National Hospital Organization facilities. Results showed common etiological causes of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP). Specifically, the odds ratio in the elderly, aged 75 years and older, was 1.473 (p=0.006) for MRSA and 6.401 (p=0.0001) for PRSP. Among those undergoing tracheal intubation, the odds ratio was 1.767 (p=0.021) for MRSA and 4.185 (p=0.0001) for PRSP, showing that advanced age and tracheal intubation tended to aggravate disease. MRSA-specific causes were pneumonia with an odds ratio of 2.426 (p=0.0001) and sepsis with one of 1.417 (p=0.013). Causes specific to Multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) were Intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH) with an odds ratio of 2.078 (p=0.0001) and urinary-tract infection with one of 0.566 (p=0.027). The individual roles of these factors in poor outcomes must thus be clarified to develop preventive measures against them. Source

Morinaga S.,National Hospital Organization Kumamoto Medical Center
[Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology

We report a case of a 1-year-old boy diagnosed with lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome (LA-HPS), which is a rare disorder. His initial presentation of sinusitis was accompanied by hemorrhagic episodes including ecchymoses and epistaxis 6 months after antibiotic therapy. Laboratory results revealed prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) that did not correct with mixing studies. Factors II, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII activities were 20%, 44%, 42.5%, 59%, 4%, and 10%, respectively. The Bethesda inhibitor assay showed inhibitors against multiple coagulation factor. APTT, mixing studies, diluted Russell's viper venom time, and the Bethesda inhibitor assay detected LA. LA-HPS with a suspected false-positive test for coagulation factor inhibitors was diagnosed. Bleeding stopped and results of coagulation studies returned to normal without therapy 2 months after onset of the disease. Source

Toyonaga T.,National Hospital Organization Kumamoto Medical Center
Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine

Exenatide belongs to a class of antidiabetic agents called incretin mimetics. In 2005, exenatide was first applied clinical therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in US, and it has now began to be used in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients since 2010. Large phase 3 clinical trials in Japan revealed that HbA1c, fasting glucose and postprandial glucose levels were improved with exenatide treatment, which were maintained over 52 weeks. Body weight reduction could be achieved with 10 microg treatment. HDL-C was significantly reduced. Exenatide was generally well tolerated, however incidence of hypoglycemia and gastro-intestinal side effect were elevated. Antibodies to exenatide were observed among approximately half of patients, however had no clinical relevant effects on the efficacy or safety. Source

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