Gler M.T.,Makati Medical Center |
Gler M.T.,Tropical Disease Foundation |
Skripconoka V.,State Agency of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases |
Sanchez-Garavito E.,Hospital Nacional Sergio E Bernales |
And 18 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012
BACKGROUND: Delamanid (OPC-67683), a nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazole derivative, is a new anti-tuberculosis medication that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis and has shown potent in vitro and in vivo activity against drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. METHODS: In this randomized, placebo-controlled, multinational clinical trial, we assigned 481 patients (nearly all of whom were negative for the human immunodeficiency virus) with pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to receive delamanid, at a dose of 100 mg twice daily (161 patients) or 200 mg twice daily (160 patients), or placebo (160 patients) for 2 months in combination with a background drug regimen developed according to World Health Organization guidelines. Sputum cultures were assessed weekly with the use of both liquid broth and solid medium; sputum-culture conversion was defined as a series of five or more consecutive cultures that were negative for growth of M. tuberculosis. The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients with sputum-culture conversion in liquid broth medium at 2 months. RESULTS:Among patients who received a background drug regimen plus 100 mg of delamanid twice daily, 45.4% had sputum-culture conversion in liquid broth at 2 months, as compared with 29.6% of patients who received a background drug regimen plus placebo (P = 0.008). Likewise, as compared with the placebo group, the group that received the background drug regimen plus 200 mg of delamanid twice daily had a higher proportion of patients with sputum-culture conversion (41.9%, P = 0.04). The findings were similar with assessment of sputum-culture conversion in solid medium. Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity and were evenly distributed across groups. Although no clinical events due to QT prolongation on electrocardiography were observed, QT prolongation was reported significantly more frequently in the groups that received delamanid. CONCLUSIONS: Delamanid was associated with an increase in sputum-culture conversion at 2 months among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. This finding suggests that delamanid could enhance treatment options for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. (Funded by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development and Commercialization; ClinicalTrials. gov number, NCT00685360.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Akira M.,National Hospital Organization Kinki Chuo Chest Medical Center
European Journal of Radiology | Year: 2014
Lung injury caused by chemicals includes bronchitis, bronchiolitis, chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organizing pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, and sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease. Each chemical induces variable pathophysiology and the situation resembles to the drug induced lung disease. The HRCT features are variable and nonspecific, however HRCT may be useful in the evaluation of the lung injuries and so we should know about HRCT features of lung parenchymal abnormalities caused by chemicals. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Costabel U.,University of Duisburg - Essen |
Inoue Y.,National Hospital Organization Kinki Chuo Chest Medical Center |
Richeldi L.,University of Southampton |
Collard H.R.,University of California at San Francisco |
And 3 more authors.
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine | Year: 2016
RATIONALE: In the two replicate, placebo-controlled, 52-week, phase III INPULSIS trials, nintedanib 150 mg twice daily significantly reduced the annual rate of decline in FVC, the primary endpoint, in subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). It is unknown if this effect was uniform across all subjects treated with nintedanib.OBJECTIVES: To investigate the potential association of demographic and clinical variables with the effect of nintedanib in subjects with IPF.METHODS: Subgroup analyses of pooled data from the INPULSIS trials were prespecified. Subgroups were analyzed by sex, age (<65, ≥65 yr), race (white, Asian), baseline FVC percentage predicted (≤70%, >70%), baseline St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score (≤40, >40), smoking status (never, ex/current), systemic corticosteroid use (yes/no), and bronchodilator use (yes/no).MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 1,061 subjects were treated (nintedanib n = 638, placebo n = 423). There was no statistically significant difference in the effect of nintedanib for the primary endpoint or the key secondary endpoints of change from baseline in SGRQ total score or time to first acute exacerbation in any subgroup. Treatment effects for the key secondary endpoints seemed more pronounced in subjects with baseline FVC ≤70% predicted, because the majority of acute exacerbations and a greater deterioration in SGRQ total score occurred in placebo-treated subjects in this subgroup.CONCLUSIONS: Pooled data from the INPULSIS trials support a consistent effect of nintedanib across a range of IPF phenotypes by slowing disease progression across a number of prespecified subgroups.
Richeldi L.,National Health Research Institute |
Du Bois R.M.,Imperial College London |
Raghu G.,University of Washington |
Azuma A.,Nippon Medical School |
And 19 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014
BACKGROUND: Nintedanib (formerly known as BIBF 1120) is an intracellular inhibitor that targets multiple tyrosine kinases. A phase 2 trial suggested that treatment with 150 mg of nintedanib twice daily reduced lung-function decline and acute exacerbations in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: We conducted two replicate 52-week, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trials (INPULSIS-1 and INPULSIS-2) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 150 mg of nintedanib twice daily as compared with placebo in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The primary end point was the annual rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC). Key secondary end points were the time to the first acute exacerbation and the change from baseline in the total score on the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, both assessed over a 52-week period. RESULTS: A total of 1066 patients were randomly assigned in a 3:2 ratio to receive nintedanib or placebo. The adjusted annual rate of change in FVC was -114.7 ml with nintedanib versus -239.9 ml with placebo (difference, 125.3 ml; 95% confidence interval [CI], 77.7 to 172.8; P<0.001) in INPULSIS-1 and -113.6 ml with nintedanib versus -207.3 ml with placebo (difference, 93.7 ml; 95% CI, 44.8 to 142.7; P<0.001) in INPULSIS-2. In INPULSIS-1, there was no significant difference between the nintedanib and placebo groups in the time to the first acute exacerbation (hazard ratio with nintedanib, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.54 to 2.42; P = 0.67); in INPULSIS-2, there was a significant benefit with nintedanib versus placebo (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.77; P = 0.005). The most frequent adverse event in the nintedanib groups was diarrhea, with rates of 61.5% and 18.6% in the nintedanib and placebo groups, respectively, in INPULSIS-1 and 63.2% and 18.3% in the two groups, respectively, in INPULSIS-2. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, nintedanib reduced the decline in FVC, which is consistent with a slowing of disease progression; nintedanib was frequently associated with diarrhea, which led to discontinuation of the study medication in less than 5% of patients. Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Yoshimura N.,Osaka City University |
Okishio K.,National Hospital Organization Kinki chuo Chest Medical Center |
Mitsuoka S.,Osaka City University |
Kimura T.,Osaka City University |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2013
INTRODUCTION: Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation positive non-small-cell lung cancer exhibited marked response to gefitinib or erlotinib. In most cases, however, the patients showed disease progression after EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed in combination with EGFR-TKI in patients with disease progression. METHODS: Patients with EGFR-mutant stage IIIB or IV non-small-cell lung cancer that progressed during gefitinib or erlotinib therapy were administered pemetrexed with the continuation of EGFR-TKI treatment. Pemetrexed was administered on day 1 at a dose of 500 mg/m, and EGFR-TKI was sequentially administered on days 2 to 16. This treatment was repeated every 3 weeks until disease progression. The primary endpoint was disease control rate. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in this study. The median number of treatment cycles was six. Overall response rate was 25.9% (95% confidence interval, 9.4%-42.4%) and disease control rate was 77.8% (95% confidence interval, 62.1%-93.5%). Grade 3/4 hematological toxicities were neutropenia (22.2%), leukopenia (14.8%), and anemia (7.4%). Grade 4 nonhematological toxicities were not observed. Major grade 3 nonhematological toxicities were anorexia (14.8%), infection (14.8%), and fatigue (11.1%). The median progression-free survival was 7.0 months, and median survival time was 11.4 months. No treatment-related deaths occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Pemetrexed in combination with erlotinib or gefitinib after disease progression shows favorable response and acceptable toxicity. Copyright © 2012 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.
Hamamoto S.,Osaka City University |
Okuma T.,National Hospital Organization Kinki Chuo Chest Medical Center |
Yamamoto A.,Osaka City University |
Kageyama K.,Osaka City University |
And 5 more authors.
Radiology | Year: 2013
Purpose: To evaluate whether antitumor immunity is enhanced systemically by combining radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and local injection of an immunostimulant, OK-432. Materials and Methods: Experiments were approved by the institutional animal care committee. Experimental Japanese rabbits inoculated with VX2 tumors in the lung and the auricle were randomized into four groups of eight: control (supportive care), RFA (RFA of lung tumor), OK-432 (direct injection of OK-432 into lung tumor), and combination therapy (lung RFA and direct OK-432 injection into lung tumor). All procedures were performed 1 week after implantation of VX2 tumors (week 1). In addition, a VX2 tumor rechallenge test was performed in the RFA and combination therapy groups. Survival time was evaluated by means of the Kaplan-Meier method and by using the log-rank test for intergroup comparison. Mean auricle tumor volumes were calculated every week. Specific growth rates (SGRs) were calculated and compared by using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: The median survival times of the control, RFA, OK-432, and combination therapy groups were 23, 36.5, 46.5, and 105 days, respectively. Survival was significantly prolonged in the combination therapy group when compared with the other three groups (P < .05). The mean auricle tumor volume decreased only in the combination therapy group. The mean auricle tumor volumes of the combination therapy group from week 1 to week 7 were 205, 339, 264, 227, 143, 127, and 115 mm3. SGR in the combination therapy group became significantly smaller than those in the other three groups (P < .05). In the rechallenge test, the volume of all reimplanted tumors decreased. Conclusion: Combining RFA with local injection of immunostimulant OK-432 may lead to indirectly activation of systemic antitumor immunity. © RSNA, 2013.
Minomo S.,National Hospital Organization Kinki chuo Chest Medical Center
Kekkaku : [Tuberculosis] | Year: 2012
We described enlargement of intrathoracic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in a 78-year-old man. The patient had previously undergone treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis about 50 years ago and showed disease recurrence in 2010. Although after tuberculosis treatment with the standard chemotherapy regimen of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, we observed a clear resolution of the main X-ray shadows, a nodular shadow in the right upper lung field was observed to have increased in size. After evaluation by transbronchial biopsy of the upper right lung lobe, we diagnosed DLBCL with subepithelial infiltration of an airway. This is a rare case of coexistence of active pulmonary tuberculosis and intrathoracic DLBCL.
Sugimoto C.,National Hospital Organization Kinki Chuo Chest Medical Center
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society | Year: 2011
We treated 8 cases of autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (APAP) with whole lung lavage (WLL) in our hospital and evaluated the disease severity of APAP before and after WLL, adverse events (AEs) and recurrence-free survival in those cases who improved. In all cases, unilateral WLL was performed in both lungs. The median of total lavage volume in unilateral WLL was 17.9 L, and the median procedure time of unilateral WLL was 105 min. Fever was the most frequently observed AE (87.5% of all procedures). Pulmonary function tests (percentage of predicted value of VC, FEV1 and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide), serum markers (KL-6, surfactant apoprotein (SP)-D, SP-A and carcinoembryonic antigens), arterial blood gas analyses (PaO2, AaDO2) and disease severity score all significantly improved after WLL. The serum levels of anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) antibody temporarily decreased after unilateral WLL, but returned to previous levels (before WLL) in 7 cases. The radiological findings improved in 6 cases. In the 7 improved cases in whom AaDO2 decreased more than 10 Torr, the median recurrence-free survival of APAP after WLL was 17.5 months. We concluded that WLL is an effective and safe method for the treatment of APAP, and all parameters except for anti GM-CSF antibody are useful to evaluate the effect of WLL.
Kurahara Y.,National Hospital Organization Kinki Chuo Chest Medical Center
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society | Year: 2011
Cryptococcal empyema is a rare disease which usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. We describe a 57-year-old man with diabetes mellitus with a mass-like shadow in the right middle lung field. Transbronchial lung biopsy of the right lung revealed numerous yeast-like fungi in fibrotic and necrotic lesions. These findings, together with positive serum cryptococcal antigen yielded a diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis secondary to diabetes mellitus. Despite treatment with several anti-fungal drugs, and dyspnea and pleural effusion developed. He was referred to our hospital for further examination and therapy. The presence of positive cryptococcal antigen and numerous yeast-like fungi were confirmed cytologically in the pleural effusion. Therefore, we suspected that pulmonary cryptococcosis had perforated into the thoracic space and empyema had developed. Because antifungal drugs were ineffective, debridement of the fibrinopurulent material by medical thoracoscopy and chest drainage were performed. The clinical symptoms of this patient improved with antifungal treatment for 1 year, and we successfully treated the cryptococcal empyema without recurrence. Debridement by medical thoracoscopy and chest drainage were useful for this case of cryptococcal empyema.
Asami K.,National Hospital Organization Kinki chuo Chest Medical Center |
Atagi S.,National Hospital Organization Kinki chuo Chest Medical Center
World Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2014
First-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), including gefitinib and erlotinib, have proven to be highly effective agents for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients harboring an activating EGFR mutation such as the exon 19 deletion mutation and L858R. Although those reversible small molecular targeted agents provide a significant response and survival benefit, all responders eventually acquire resistance. Secondgeneration EGFR-targeting agents, such as irreversible EGFR/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors and pan-HER TKIs, may improve survival further and be useful for patients who acquired resistance to ?rst-generation EGFR- TKIs. This review discusses novel therapeutic strategies for EGFR-mutated advanced NSCLC using first- and second-generation EGFR-TKIs. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.