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Shimada I.,National Hospital Organization Kanazawa Medical Center | Shimada I.,Kanazawa University | Iwata C.,Kanazawa University | Taga S.,Kanazawa University | And 7 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2012

Recently, it has been reported that total clearance (CLtot) of vancomycin is significantly higher in patients with malignancies compared to those without malignancies. In the present study, to clarify the mechanism of this enhancement in malignancy, we adopted rat animal models, using chemical carcinogen-induced osteosarcoma, selected lung metastatic lesions (C-SLM), transplanted into thigh muscles. The CLtot and renal clearance (CLr) of vancomycin in the tumor-bearing rats were increased compared to the ones of the control rats without tumor. However, there was no difference in the glomerular filtration rate. The plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, were elevated in the tumor-bearing rats. When renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC) were exposed to IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α simultaneously, the excretory ratio increased significantly. These findings suggest that tubular excretion or re-absorption by cytokines might be associated with changes in the vancomycin CLtot enhancement in the tumor-bearing rats.

Nagata A.,Kanazawa University | Nagata A.,National Hospital Organization Kanazawa Medical Center | Omachi K.,Santen Pharmaceutical | Higashide T.,Kanazawa University | And 5 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2014

Purpose. To determine whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a useful technique to monitor retinal damage and to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of topical tafluprost in a rat model of intravitreal endothelin-1 (ET-1) injection. Methods. A single intravitreal injection of ET-1 (0.2-200 pmol/eye) was performed in one eye. Optical coherence tomography imaging was performed until 2 weeks after ET-1 injection. Subsequently, an intravitreal injection of ET-1 (20 pmol/eye) was performed in one eye of each rat, which was followed by topical instillation of tafluprost or saline once daily for 4 weeks. Optical coherence tomography imaging was performed until 4 weeks after ET-1 injection. After the last OCT session, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were retrogradely labeled with Fluorogold. Results. Endothelin-1 at doses of 20 to 200 pmol/eye caused a significant decrease in inner retinal thickness, whereas ET-1 at doses of 0.2 to 5 pmol/eye did not. The inner retinal thickness at 2 weeks postinjection was strongly correlated with Fluorogold-labeled RGC counts in the central retina (r = 0.92, P < 0.001). The inner retina of eyes treated with tafluprost was significantly thicker than eyes treated with saline at 1 and 2 weeks (P = 0.038 and P = 0.045, respectively). Fluorogold-labeled RGC counts in the central retina of eyes treated with tafluprost were significantly greater than in eyes treated with saline (P = 0.03). Conclusions. Optical coherence tomography is useful for monitoring inner retinal damage in a rat model of intravitreal ET-1 injection. Daily topical administration of tafluprost may be protective against ET-1-induced retinal injury in the rat. © 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

Hayashi H.,Kanazawa University | Takamura H.,Kanazawa University | Tani T.,Public Central Hospital of Matto Ishikawa | Makino I.,Kanazawa University | And 6 more authors.
Experimental and Clinical Transplantation | Year: 2012

Objectives: The most serious, life-threatening complication after living-donor liver transplant is a hepatic arterial thrombosis. Although possible therapies for acute hepatic arterial thrombosis include revascularization to salvage the graft, or retransplant, these may be difficult to perform owing to technical aspects and donor shortages. Previously, we reported the usefulness of partial portal arterialization in such cases. Materials and Methods: Four cases of partial portal arterialization for hepatic arterial occlusion after living-donor liver transplant were reviewed. The surgical procedure of partial portal arterialization involves making an arteriovenous shunt via a side- to-side anastomosis, using mesenteric vessels approximately 2 mm in diameter. Results: After partial portal arterialization, hepatic arterial flow was not detected, but graft injury owing to hypoxia gradually improved in all cases. In 1 case, occlusion of the arteriovenous shunt itself and the collateral artery to the graft were identified by angiography 45 days after partial portal arterialization. In another case, massive ascites, pleural effusion, and variceal changes of the mesenteric veins owing to portal hypertension were identified, and surgical closure of the shunt was performed 152 days after partial portal arterialization. In the other 2 cases, there were no definite problems related to partial portal arterialization, but the patients died owing to other complications. Conclusions: When hepatic arterial thrombosis occurs after living-donor liver transplant, revascularization should be performed first. However, this sometimes may be difficult, as when the arterial dissection reaches into the graft. Partial portal arterialization is an easy and effective surgical procedure. Therefore, partial portal arterialization appears to be a useful option to gain time until collateral arterial vessels develop or retransplant, even if revascularization cannot be performed. © Başkent University 2012 Printed in Turkey. All Rights Reserved.

Kadono Y.,Kanazawa University | Ueno S.,Kanazawa University | Yaegashi H.,Kanazawa University | Ofude M.,Kanazawa University | And 6 more authors.
Urology | Year: 2014

Objective To evaluate continence status and mechanism of urinary incontinence immediately after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) by performing urodynamic evaluation. Methods A total of 87 patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent RARP were included. Filling cystometry, urethral pressure profilometry, and abdominal leak point pressure (ALPP) tests were performed before and immediately after RARP. Results The mean urine loss ratio (ULR), calculated by dividing the total urine volume by the weight of urine loss after RARP, was 17.8%. Nerve-sparing (NS) surgery significantly affected ULR compared with non-NS surgery. In the comparison between preoperative and postoperative results, the mean maximal cystometric capacity (MCC) and maximal closure urethral pressure (MUCP) decreased from 341 mL and 84.6 cm H 2O to 250 mL and 35.6 cm H2O, respectively. No urine leakage was observed in ALPP test preoperatively; however, urine leakage was observed postoperatively in 75 patients (86%), with a mean ALPP of 47.7 cm H2O. Multivariate analysis revealed that MCC, MUCP, and ALPP after RARP were predictive factors for ULR. Linear correlations were found between ULR and MUCP and between ULR and ALPP after RARP. NS status and MUCP after RARP (r = 0.247; P =.021) and the ALPP (r = 0.254; P =.018) were significantly correlated. Conclusion In urodynamic evaluation immediately after RARP, MCC, MUCP, and ALPP were found to predictive factors for urinary incontinence. The NS procedure contributed to continence status after RARP. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Shimizu M.,Kanazawa University | Furuichi K.,Kanazawa University | Toyama T.,Kanazawa University | Kitajima S.,Kanazawa University | And 9 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE-We evaluated the structural-functional relationships and the prognostic factors for renal events, cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with biopsy-proven diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with biopsyproven diabetic nephropathy (n = 260) were enrolled. Patients were stratified by albuminuria (proteinuria) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the time of renal biopsy. The outcomes were the first occurrence of renal events (requirement of dialysis or a 50% decline in eGFR from baseline), cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary interventions, or nonfatal stroke), and all-cause mortality. RESULTS-The factors associated with albuminuria (proteinuria) regardless of eGFR were hematuria, diabetic retinopathy, low hemoglobin, and glomerular lesions. The factors associated with low eGFR regardless of albuminuria (proteinuria) were age and diffuse, nodular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular lesions. The glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular lesions in patients with normoalbuminuria (normal proteinuria) and low eGFR were more advanced compared to those in patients with normoalbuminuria (normal proteinuria) and maintained eGFR. In addition, compared to patients with micro-/macroalbuminuria (mild/severe proteinuria) and low eGFR, their tubulointerstitial and vascular lesions were similar or more advanced in contrast to glomerular lesions. The mean follow-up period was 8.1 years. There were 118 renal events, 62 cardiovascular events, and 45 deaths. The pathological determinants were glomerular lesions, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA), and arteriosclerosis for renal events, arteriosclerosis for cardiovascular events, and IFTAfor all-cause mortality.Themajor clinical determinant for renal events and all-cause mortality was macroalbuminuria (severe proteinuria). CONCLUSIONS-Our study suggests that the characteristic pathological lesions as well as macroalbuminuria (severe proteinuria) were closely related to the long-termoutcomes of biopsyproven diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

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