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Umemura A.,Clinical Research Center | Oeda T.,Clinical Research Center | Tomita S.,Clinical Research Center | Hayashi R.,Clinical Research Center | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: In Parkinson disease (PD), systemic inflammation caused by respiratory infections such as pneumonia frequently occurs, often resulting in delirium in the advanced stages of this disease. Delirium can lead to cognitive and functional decline, institutionalization, and mortality, especially in the elderly. Inflammation causes rapid worsening of PD motor symptoms and signs, sometimes irreversibly in some, but not all, patients. Purpose: To identify factors associated with subacute motor deterioration in PD patients with systemic inflammation. Methods: The association of clinical factors with subacute motor deterioration was analyzed by a case-control study. Subacute motor deterioration was defined as sustained worsening by one or more modified Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y) stages. Using multivariable logistic regression incorporating baseline characteristics (age, sex, PD duration, modified H-Y stage, dementia, and psychosis history) and statistically selected possible predictors (peak body temperature, duration of leukocytosis, and presence of delirium), the odds ratios for these factors were estimated as relative risks. Results: Of 80 PD patients with systemic inflammation, 26 with associated subacute motor deterioration were designated as cases and the remainder as controls. In the 26 cases, 6 months after its onset the motor deterioration had persisted in 19 patients and resolved in four (three were lost for follow-up). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that delirium and body temperature are significantly associated with motor deterioration after systemic inflammation (P = 0.001 for delirium and P = 0.026 for body temperature), the adjusted odds ratios being 15.89 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.23-78.14) and 2.78 (95% CI: 1.13-6.83), respectively. Conclusions: In patients with PD and systemic inflammation, delirium and high body temperature are strong risk factors for subsequent subacute motor deterioration and such deterioration can persist for over 6 months. © 2014 Umemura et al.

Oeda T.,National Hospital of Utano | Umemura A.,National Hospital of Utano | Tomita S.,National Hospital of Utano | Hayashi R.,National Hospital of Utano | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Abnormal posture (AP) is often seen in Parkinson's disease (PD), and marked forms known as dropped head syndrome and camptocormia encumber daily living activities. Unlike other motor disabilities such as bradykinesia or muscular rigidity, AP is not always improved but rather deteriorated by PD medication.Purpose:To clarify factors associated with neck and thoracolumbar AP.Methods:Neck flexion (NF) and thoracolumbar (TL) angles were measured in 216 consecutive PD patients and 175 elderly healthy controls. The differences in NF and TL angles between PD patients and controls were designated as ΔNFA and ΔTLA, respectively. The association of ΔNFA or ΔTLA and predictable factors such as age, sex, duration of PD, Hoehn Yahr (H-Y) stage, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part 3 (UPDRS-3), daily dose of dopamine agonists, and comorbid orthopedic spinal lesions was investigated in PD patients. Patients were divided into quartiles according to ΔNFA or ΔTLA. The association between predictable factors and ΔNFA or ΔTLA was estimated as odds ratio (OR), comparing with the lowest quartile as the reference by multivariate regression analysis.Results:Compared with controls, distributions of all three posture angles were significantly shifted rightward in PD patients. Although there were no difference in UPDRS-3 scores in the quartiles of ΔNFA, the highest quartile was associated with H-Y stage ≥3 [OR 2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-6.70, p = 0.008] after adjustment for age, sex and comorbid orthopedic spinal lesions. The highest quartile of ΔTLA was associated with comorbid orthopedic spinal lesions [OR 5.83 (1.42-23.8), p = 0.014], and UPDRS-3 score [OR 3.04 (1.80-5.15)/10 points, p<0.0001].Conclusion:Thoraco-lumbar AP was associated with UPDRS-3 scores and orthopedic spinal lesions, and in contrast, neck AP was not associated with these factors, suggesting that they had different pathomechanisms. © 2013 Oeda et al.

Sawada H.,National Hospital of Utano | Oeda T.,National Hospital of Utano | Umemura A.,National Hospital of Utano | Tomita S.,National Hospital of Utano | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a biomarker of inflammation, and high levels of CRP correlate with vascular death. Chronic inflammation is considered to be involved in neurodegeneration, although there is no evidence linking it with the process of neurodegenerative diseases. Objective: To determine the role of baseline CRP levels in the prognosis of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: A cohort of 313 patients with a mean age of 69.1 and mean PD duration of 7.9 years was retrospectively followed for a mean observation time of 1,753 days. CRP was measured when patients were not diagnosed with any infections, and levels were repetitively measured to investigate a tendency of "regression to mean." The primary outcome measure was a survival time from study enrollment to death. Results: During the observation period 56 patients died. Baseline CRP was log-linearly associated with a risk of death in PD. Mean survival time was 3,149 (95%confidence interval; 3,009-3,289) days in patients with CRP ≤ 0.8mg/L (lower two thirds) and 2,620 (2,343-2,897) days in those with CRP > 0.8 mg/L (top third, p < 0.001, log-rank test). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per two-fold higher CRP concentration for all deaths was 1.29 (1.10-1.52), and after excluding PD-unrelated deaths, such as cancer or stroke, HR was 1.23 (1.01-1.49) (adjusted for age, sex, PD duration, modified Hohen-Yahr stages, MMSE scores, and serum albumin). Conclusions: Baseline CRP concentrations were associated with the risk of death and predicted life prognosis of patients with PD. The associations were independent from PD duration, PD severity, cognitive function, ages, and nutritional conditions, suggesting the possibility that subclinical chronic inflammation is associated with a neurodegenerative process in PD. Copyright: © 2015 Sawada et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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