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Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte, Sri Lanka

Jayasundara J.A.S.B.,National Hospital of Sri Lanka | de Silva W.M.M.,Colombo South Teaching Hospital
Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England | Year: 2013

Traditionally, all cholecystectomy specimens resected for symptomatic cholelithiasis were sent for histological evaluation. The objectives of such evaluation are to confirm the clinicoradiological diagnosis, identification of unsuspected findings including incidental gallbladder malignancy, audit and research purposes, and quality control issues. Currently, there is a developing trend to consider selective histological evaluation of surgical specimens removed for clinically benign disease. This article discusses the need for routine or selective histopathological evaluation of gallbladder specimens following cholecystectomy. Although several retrospective studies have suggested selective histological evaluation of cholecystectomy specimens performed for symptomatic cholelithiasis, the evidence is not adequate at present to recommend selective histological evaluation globally. However, it may be appropriate to consider selective histological evaluation on a regional basis in areas of extremely low incidence of gallbladder cancer only after unanimous agreement between the governing bodies of surgical and histopathological expertise. Source

Ranasinghe P.,University of Colombo | Perera Y.S.,National Hospital of Sri Lanka | Makarim M.F.M.,University of Colombo | Wijesinghe A.,Kandy Teaching Hospital | Wanigasuriya K.,University of Sri Jayewardenepura
BMC Nephrology | Year: 2011

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease is a major public health problem worldwide with enormous cost burdens on health care systems in developing countries. We aimed to provide a detailed analysis of the processes and costs of haemodialysis in Sri Lanka and provide a framework for modeling similar financial audits. Methods. This prospective study was conducted at haemodialysis units of three public and two private hospitals in Sri Lanka for two months in June and July 2010. Cost of drugs and consumables for the three public hospitals were obtained from the price list issued by the Medical Supplies Division of the Department of Health Services, while for the two private hospitals they were obtained from financial departments of the respective hospitals. Staff wages were obtained from the hospital chief accountant/chief financial officers. The cost of electricity and water per month was calculated directly with the assistance of expert engineers. An apportion was done from the total hospital costs of administration, cleaning services, security, waste disposal and, laundry and sterilization for each unit. Results: The total number of dialysis sessions (hours) at the five hospitals for June and July were 3341 (12959) and 3386 (13301) respectively. Drug and consumables costs accounted for 70.4-84.9% of the total costs, followed by the wages of the nursing staff at each unit (7.8-19.7%). The mean cost of a dialysis session in Sri Lanka was LKR 6,377 (US$ 56). The annual cost of haemodialysis for a patient with chronic renal failure undergoing 2-3 dialysis session of four hours duration per week was LKR 663,208-994,812 (US$ 5,869-8,804). At one hospital where facilities are available for the re-use of dialyzers (although not done during study period) the cost of consumables would have come down from LKR 5,940,705 to LKR 3,368,785 (43% reduction) if the method was adopted, reducing costs of haemodialysis per hour from LKR 1,327 at present to LKR 892 (33% reduction). Conclusions: This multi-centered study demonstrated that the costs of haemodialysis in a developing country remained significantly lower compared to developed countries. However, it still places a significant burden on the health care sector, whilst possibility of further cost reduction exists. © 2011 Ranasinghe et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Navinan M.R.,National Hospital of Sri Lanka | Rajapakse S.,University of Colombo
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012

Leptospirosis is a neglected global disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Cardiac complications such as chest pain, arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema and refractory shock have been reported in patients with severe disease. However, the frequency and extent of cardiac involvement in leptospirosis, are under-reported and poorly understood. Multiple factors may contribute to clinical manifestations that suggest cardiac involvement, causing diagnostic confusion. A variety of electrocardiographic changes occur in leptospirosis, with atrial fibrillation, atrioventricular conduction blocks and non-specific ventricular repolarization abnormalities being the most common. Electrolyte abnormalities are likely to contribute to electrocardiographic changes; direct effects on Na+-K+-Cl- transporters in the renal tubules have been postulated. Echocardiographic evidence of myocardial dysfunction has not been adequately demonstrated. The diagnostic value of cardiac biomarkers is unknown. Histopathological changes in the myocardium have been clearly shown, with myocardial inflammation and vasculitis present in postmortem studies. Nonetheless, the pathophysiology of cardiac involvement in leptospirosis is poorly understood. Cardiac involvement, demonstrated electrocardiographically or clinically, tends to predict poor outcome. No specific therapies are available to prevent or treat cardiac involvement in leptospirosis; current management is based on correction of deranged homeostasis and supportive therapy. Evidence suggests that direct myocardial damage occurs in patients with severe leptospirosis, and further studies are recommended to elucidate its pathophysiology, clinical features and contribution to overall prognosis, and to identify appropriate diagnostic investigations and specific therapies. © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

Abeysuriya V.,University of Kelaniya | Deen K.I.,University of Kelaniya | Navarathne N.M.M.,National Hospital of Sri Lanka
Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The process of microcrystallization, its sequel and the assessment of nucleation time is ignored. This systematic review aimed to highlight the importance of biliary microlithiasis, sludge, and crystals, and their association with gallstones, unexplained biliary pain, idiopathic pancreatitis, and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. DATA SOURCES: Three reviewers performed a literature search of the PubMed database. Key words used were "biliary microlithiasis", "biliary sludge", "bile crystals", "cholesterol crystallisation", "bile microscopy", "microcrystal formation of bile", "cholesterol monohydrate crystals", "nucleation time of cholesterol", "gallstone formation", "sphincter of Oddi dysfunction" and "idiopathic pancreatitis". Additional articles were sourced from references within the studies from the PubMed search. RESULTS: We found that biliary microcrystals account for almost all patients with gallstone disease, 7% to 79% with idiopathic pancreatitis, 83% with unexplained biliary pain, and 25% to 60% with altered biliary and pancreatic sphincter function. Overall, the detection of biliary microcrystals in gallstone disease has a sensitivity ranging from 55% to 87% and a specificity of 100%. In idiopathic pancreatitis, the presence of microcrystals ranges from 47% to 90%. A nucleation time less than 10 days in hepatic bile or ultra-filtered gallbladder bile has a specificity of 100% for cholesterol gallstone disease. CONCLUSIONS: Biliary crystals are associated with gallstone disease, idiopathic pancreatitis, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, unexplained biliary pain, and post-cholecystectomy biliary pain. Pathways of cholesterol super-saturation, crystallisation, and gallstone formation have been described with scientific support. Bile microscopy is a useful method to detect microcrystals and the assessment of nucleation time is a good method of predicting the risk of cholesterol crystallisation. © 2010, Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. Source

Hannadige H.,National Hospital of Sri Lanka
Sri Lankan Journal of Anaesthesiology | Year: 2015

A superficial cervical plexus block was performed following general anaesthesia for a thyroidectomy to provide intraoperative and post-operative analgesia. The patient suffered a transient motor weakness and numbness on both upper limbs following the procedure which lasted about 12hrs. There were no residual neurological effects. © 2015, College of Anaesthesiologists of Sri Lanka. All rights reserved. Source

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