National HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance and Prevention Working Group

Yaoundé, Cameroon

National HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance and Prevention Working Group

Yaoundé, Cameroon
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Fokam J.,Chantal International Reference Center for Research on AIDS Prevention and Management | Fokam J.,University of Yaounde I | Fokam J.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Fokam J.,National HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance and Prevention Working Group | And 22 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: The majority (>95%) of new HIV infection occurs in resource-limited settings, and Cameroon is still experiencing a generalized epidemic with ~122,638 patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). A detrimental outcome in scaling-up ART is the emergence HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), suggesting the need for pragmatic approaches in sustaining a successful ART performance. Methods: A survey was conducted in 15 ART sites of the Centre and Littoral regions of Cameroon in 2013 (10 urban versus 05 rural settings; 8 at tertiary/secondary versus 7 at primary healthcare levels), evaluating HIVDR-early warning indicators (EWIs) as-per the 2012 revised World Health Organization's guidelines: EWI1 (on-time pill pick-up), EWI2 (retention in care), EWI3 (no pharmacy stock-outs), EWI4 (dispensing practices), EWI5 (virological suppression). Poor performance was interpreted as potential HIVDR. Results: Only 33.3%(4/12) of sites reached the desirable performance for "on-time pill pick-up" (57.1% urban versus 0% rural; p < 0.0001) besides 25% (3/12) with fair performance. 69.2% (9/13) reached the desirable performance for "retention in care" (77.8% urban versus 50% rural; p=0.01) beside 7.7% (1/13) with fair performance. Only 14.4%(2/13) reached the desirable performance of "no pharmacy stock-outs" (11.1% urban versus 25% rural; p=0.02). All 15 sites reached the desirable performance of 0% "dispensing mono- or dual-therapy". Data were unavailable to evaluate "virological suppression" due to limited access to viral load testing (min-max: < 1%-15%). Potential HIVDR was higher in rural (57.9%) compared to urban (27.8%) settings, p=0.02; and at primary (57.9%) compared to secondary/tertiary (33.3%) healthcare levels, p=0.09. Conclusions: Delayed pill pick-up and pharmacy stock-outs are major factors favoring HIVDR emergence, with higher risks in rural settings and at primary healthcare. Retention in care appears acceptable in general while ART dispensing practices are standard. There is need to support patient-adherence to pharmacy appointments while reinforcing the national drug supply system. Copyright: © 2015 Fokam et al.


PubMed | University of Yaounde I, World Health Organization, National HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance and Prevention Working Group and United Nations program on HIV AIDS UNAIDS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

The majority (>95%) of new HIV infection occurs in resource-limited settings, and Cameroon is still experiencing a generalized epidemic with ~122,638 patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). A detrimental outcome in scaling-up ART is the emergence HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), suggesting the need for pragmatic approaches in sustaining a successful ART performance.A survey was conducted in 15 ART sites of the Centre and Littoral regions of Cameroon in 2013 (10 urban versus 05 rural settings; 8 at tertiary/secondary versus 7 at primary healthcare levels), evaluating HIVDR-early warning indicators (EWIs) as-per the 2012 revised World Health Organizations guidelines: EWI1 (on-time pill pick-up), EWI2 (retention in care), EWI3 (no pharmacy stock-outs), EWI4 (dispensing practices), EWI5 (virological suppression). Poor performance was interpreted as potential HIVDR.Only 33.3% (4/12) of sites reached the desirable performance for on-time pill pick-up (57.1% urban versus 0% rural; p<0.0001) besides 25% (3/12) with fair performance. 69.2% (9/13) reached the desirable performance for retention in care (77.8% urban versus 50% rural; p=0.01) beside 7.7% (1/13) with fair performance. Only 14.4% (2/13) reached the desirable performance of no pharmacy stock-outs (11.1% urban versus 25% rural; p=0.02). All 15 sites reached the desirable performance of 0% dispensing mono- or dual-therapy. Data were unavailable to evaluate virological suppression due to limited access to viral load testing (min-max: <1%-15%). Potential HIVDR was higher in rural (57.9%) compared to urban (27.8%) settings, p=0.02; and at primary (57.9%) compared to secondary/tertiary (33.3%) healthcare levels, p=0.09.Delayed pill pick-up and pharmacy stock-outs are major factors favoring HIVDR emergence, with higher risks in rural settings and at primary healthcare. Retention in care appears acceptable in general while ART dispensing practices are standard. There is need to support patient-adherence to pharmacy appointments while reinforcing the national drug supply system.


PubMed | National HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance and Prevention Working Group
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2012

Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI) may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS.A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units) distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1) Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2) Patient lost to follow-up: target 20%; (3) Patient retention on first line ART: target 70%; (4) On-time drug pick-up: target 90%; (5) ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol.THE NUMBER OF SITES ATTAINING THE REQUIRED PERFORMANCE ARE: 90% (36/40) for EWI(1), 20% (8/40) for EWI(2); 20% (8/40) for EWI(3); 0% (0/37) for EWI(4); and 45% (17/38) for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI(2), EWI(3), and EWI(4)) was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement.The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon.

Loading National HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance and Prevention Working Group collaborators
Loading National HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance and Prevention Working Group collaborators