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Constantin Daicoviciu, Romania

Nagy E.,Babes - Bolyai University | Guttmann M.,National History Museum of Transylvania | Guttmann M.,Lucian Blaga University | Molnar-Kovacs Z.,Babes - Bolyai University | Barabas R.,Babes - Bolyai University
Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Chemia

Bronze Age settlements have been discovered in the region of river Eriu, Satu Mare County, Romania. This study includes the archaeometric examination of eight ceramic artifacts dated from Early to Middle Bronze Age, representing the Otomani culture. The used methods were petrography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermal analysis (thermal gravimetric analysis - TGA and differential scanning calorimetry - DSC). The study of archaeological ceramics needs an interdisciplinary approach, where the scientific research can have an important role in supporting the archaeological study. Our aim was to support by scientific methods the archaeological assumptions, which describe the culture, their knowledge and opportunities. For this purpose we wanted to select the most appropriate measuring methods and how can the measuring results complete each other for a complex description of the culture. Therefore, the evaluation methodology of the measurement data was given an increased importance. The selection of the samples depended on archaeological background, therefore the samples allowed a case study for the testing of the measuring methods. The mineral-petrographic analysis included the approximation of firing temperature, identification of potential raw material sources, similarity between samples and the determination of the technology used. Additional objective was the establishment of usability for the testing methods to have accurate measurements. Loam from the region was also analyzed and compared with the results of the ceramic samples. © 2015, Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Catedra de Filosofie Sistematica. All rights reserved. Source

Hervella M.,University of the Basque Country | Rotea M.,National History Museum of Transylvania | Izagirre N.,University of the Basque Country | Constantinescu M.,Romanian Academy of Sciences | And 8 more authors.

The importance of the process of Neolithization for the genetic make-up of European populations has been hotly debated, with shifting hypotheses from a demic diffusion (DD) to a cultural diffusion (CD) model. In this regard, ancient DNA data from the Balkan Peninsula, which is an important source of information to assess the process of Neolithization in Europe, is however missing. In the present study we show genetic information on ancient populations of the South-East of Europe. We assessed mtDNA from ten sites from the current territory of Romania, spanning a time-period from the Early Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. mtDNA data from Early Neolithic farmers of the Starčevo Criş culture in Romania (Cârcea, Gura Baciului and Negrileşti sites), confirm their genetic relationship with those of the LBK culture (Linienbandkeramik Kultur) in Central Europe, and they show little genetic continuity with modern European populations. On the other hand, populations of the Middle-Late Neolithic (Boian, Zau and Gumelniţa cultures), supposedly a second wave of Neolithic migration from Anatolia, had a much stronger effect on the genetic heritage of the European populations. In contrast, we find a smaller contribution of Late Bronze Age migrations to the genetic composition of Europeans. Based on these findings, we propose that permeation of mtDNA lineages from a second wave of Middle-Late Neolithic migration from North-West Anatolia into the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe represent an important contribution to the genetic shift between Early and Late Neolithic populations in Europe, and consequently to the genetic make-up of modern European populations. © 2015 Hervella et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Benea M.,Babes - Bolyai University | Ienciu R.,Science Geosearch S.R.L | Rusu-Bolindet V.,National History Museum of Transylvania
Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Chemia

The paper presents the results of the mineralogical and physical investigation performed on 10 fragments of Roman ceramics (oil lamps, bowls, plates) out of the 20 samples collected from the west-east Section of the Basilica extra muros Sector, Histria (Constanţa County, Romania). Our goal was to define the physiographical features: structure, texture and firing parameters for this group of ceramic objects. The original 20 archaeological objects are represented by oil lamps (4), plates (8), bowls (6), one jug, and one terracotta - all in the form of fragments. From the technical realisation point of view, 13 objects were pressed in moulds, while the rest (7) were formed on the potter's wheel. Excepting three objects that lack decoration, the rest show various decorations: in relief, incised or printed. The 10 ceramic fragments we have investigated are representative for the original group of 20 samples. They were investigated macroscopically, microscopically, by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and for their compaction characteristics: water adsorption, density and apparent density. Based on their macroscopic and physical features, as well as on the mineral composition by XRD, we could separate two categories of ceramics fired at different temperature ranges: (1) 800°-900°C (6 samples), and (2) 900°-950°C (4 samples). Source

Gruita-Savu I.,National History Museum of Transylvania
Brukenthal. Acta Musei

The present article aims at analyzing The Quartet Series, one of the numerous symbolist topics that the Transylvanian painter Octavian Smigelschi (1866-1912) approached in his artistic carrier; though researchers in the field have previously approached this topic, it has more to offer. Analyzing this cycle of works enabled me to perceive the different stages in Smigelschi's elaboration of compositions, the way the artists, just like a film director, guided his subjects to obtain the maximum effect from their association. The article establishes a development path of this cycle and in the same time tries to establish Octavian Smigelschi's place in the context of Central-European painting. Source

Melinda M.,National History Museum of Transylvania
Brukenthal. Acta Musei

The most important cities of Transylvania developed thriving external markets, and this ensured their development since the end of the fifteenth century. Compared to such cities, Cluj developed slower, entering a phase of rapid ascension only starting with the second half of the sixteenth century when it became "Transilvaniae civitas primaria". The present study aims at presenting homes from Cluj during the time of the Renaissance, through a typological analysis. Source

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