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Esso L.J.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Esso L.J.,National Higher School of Statistics and Economics
Energy Economics | Year: 2010

The paper investigates the long-run and the causality relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for seven Sub-Saharan African countries during the period 1970-2007. Using the Gregory and Hansen (1996a, 1996b) testing approach to threshold cointegration, we find that energy consumption is cointegrated with economic growth in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa. Moreover, this test suggests that economic growth has a significant positive long-run impact on energy consumption in these countries before 1988 and this effect becomes negative after 1988 in Ghana and South Africa. Furthermore, causality tests suggest bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real GDP in Cote d'Ivoire and unidirectional causality running from real GDP to energy usage in the case of Congo and Ghana. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Akbi A.,Renewable Energy Development Center Algeria | Yassaa N.,Renewable Energy Development Center Algeria | Boudjema R.,National Higher School of Statistics and Economics | Aliouat B.,MDI Algiers Business School
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

The high generation cost of renewable energy is one of the main barriers to their development and large-scale deployment. This is the case of Algeria, in which despite its significant renewable energy potential, more than 96% of electricity is generated with gas turbines to cover increasing national demand. This choice is also driven by the important natural gas reservoirs in Algeria in addition to the low cost of electricity that is generated by this fossil fuel. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the cost of electricity production from a renewable source, substituting conventional fossil fuel processes. An economic value can be captured through the trade of greenhouse gas emissions and the reallocation of fuel savings to export. This approach is particularly well supported considering the growing local demand for natural gas, threatening the country's natural gas export capacity in which the economy of Algeria is tightly dependent. The conventional evaluation of the generation cost of electricity, using the Levelized Cost Of Electricity (LCOE) and the cost structure of electricity production is selected for comparing the cost of electricity generation from gas power and photovoltaic plants. The environmental benefits and their financial valuation mechanisms are discussed. To illustrate all these parameters, a case study of a photovoltaic plant with a capacity of one megawatt (1 MW) installed in Algeria is presented and the potential benefits in terms of fuel savings and CO2 eq emission assessed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Keho Y.,National Higher School of Statistics and Economics
Energy Policy | Year: 2016

This study investigates the drivers of energy consumption in Sub-Saharan African countries. It applies the bounds testing approach to cointegration to time series data at individual country levels over the period from 1970 to 2011. The study finds that energy consumption is cointegrated with real GDP per capita, industrial output, imports, foreign direct investment, credit to private sector, urbanization and population. Furthermore, the sign and magnitude of long-run estimates vary significantly for a single country and across countries depending on the energy consumption variable used. Overall, the findings confirm the leading role of economic growth, industrial output, population and urbanization. Economic growth, industrial output and population have positive effects on energy consumption in the majority of countries. Given the urgent need to address climate change, African countries should adopt policies to improve energy efficiency and accelerate transition toward renewable energy. The African Renewable Energy Initiative launched at the 21st session of the United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP21) is an opportunity for African countries to provide and maintain widespread access to reliable and affordable environmentally cleaner energy to meet the requirements of rapid economic growth and improved living standards. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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