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Sydney, Australia

Li X.,University of Macau | Yang Y.,University of Macau | Henry R.J.,University of Queensland | Rossetto M.,National Herbarium of NSW | And 2 more authors.
Biological Reviews | Year: 2014

DNA barcoding is currently a widely used and effective tool that enables rapid and accurate identification of plant species; however, none of the available loci work across all species. Because single-locus DNA barcodes lack adequate variations in closely related taxa, recent barcoding studies have placed high emphasis on the use of whole-chloroplast genome sequences which are now more readily available as a consequence of improving sequencing technologies. While chloroplast genome sequencing can already deliver a reliable barcode for accurate plant identification it is not yet resource-effective and does not yet offer the speed of analysis provided by single-locus barcodes to unspecialized laboratory facilities. Here, we review the development of candidate barcodes and discuss the feasibility of using the chloroplast genome as a super-barcode. We advocate a new approach for DNA barcoding that, for selected groups of taxa, combines the best use of single-locus barcodes and super-barcodes for efficient plant identification. Specific barcodes might enhance our ability to distinguish closely related plants at the species and population levels. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society. Source

Gallagher R.V.,Macquarie University | Makinson R.O.,National Herbarium of NSW | Hogbin P.M.,A+ Network | Hancock N.,Macquarie University
Austral Ecology | Year: 2015

Assisted colonization is a form of conservation translocation which introduces species at risk from extinction to new habitats, beyond their current range, in anticipation of more suitable conditions. Identifying which species, communities and ecosystems may benefit most from assisted colonization in coming decades is a key goal for conservation. Climate change is expected to lead to the loss or movement of suitable habitat for a range of species and anticipating which can be effectively conserved through assisted colonization is critical. Here, we identify a series of scenarios that may predispose terrestrial species to the need for assisted colonization in order to reduce extinction risk resulting from anthropogenic climate change and assemble a list of traits commonly associated with at-risk species. These traits may help to provide broad-scale guidance on how to select species to target for assisted colonization as a conservation management response to climate change. We also identify six key themes associated with successful conservation translocations including recipient site selection and preparation, a clear understanding of species biology and ecology, and taking lessons from invasive species research. © 2014 Ecological Society of Australia. Source

Rossetto M.,National Herbarium of NSW | Allen C.B.,National Herbarium of NSW | Thurlby K.A.G.,National Herbarium of NSW | Weston P.H.,National Herbarium of NSW | And 2 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2012

Background: Four of the five species of Telopea (Proteaceae) are distributed in a latitudinal replacement pattern on the south-eastern Australian mainland. In similar circumstances, a simple allopatric speciation model that identifies the origins of genetic isolation within temporal geographic separation is considered as the default model. However, secondary contact between differentiated lineages can result in similar distributional patterns to those arising from a process of parapatric speciation (where gene flow between lineages remains uninterrupted during differentiation). Our aim was to use the characteristic distributional patterns in Telopea to test whether it reflected the evolutionary models of allopatric or parapatric speciation. Using a combination of genetic evidence and environmental niche modelling, we focused on three main questions: do currently described geographic borders coincide with genetic and environmental boundaries; are there hybrid zones in areas of secondary contact between closely related species; did species distributions contract during the last glacial maximum resulting in distributional gaps even where overlap and hybridisation currently occur?. Results: Total genomic DNA was extracted from 619 individuals sampled from 36 populations representing the four species. Seven nuclear microsatellites (nSSR) and six chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR) were amplified across all populations. Genetic structure and the signature of admixture in overlap zones was described using the Bayesian clustering methods implemented in STUCTURE and NewHybrids respectively. Relationships between chlorotypes were reconstructed as a median-joining network. Environmental niche models were produced for all species using environmental parameters from both the present day and the last glacial maximum (LGM).The nSSR loci amplified a total of 154 alleles, while data for the cpSSR loci produced a network of six chlorotypes. STRUCTURE revealed an optimum number of five clusters corresponding to the four recognised species with the additional division of T. speciosissima into populations north and south of the Shoalhaven River valley. Unexpectedly, the northern disjunct population of T. oreades grouped with T. mongaensis and was identified as a hybrid swarm by the Bayesian assignment test implemented in NewHybrids. Present day and LGM environmental niche models differed dramatically, suggesting that distributions of all species had repeatedly expanded and contracted in response to Pleistocene climatic oscillations and confirming strongly marked historical distributional gaps among taxes. Conclusions: Genetic structure and bio-climatic modeling results are more consistent with a history of allopatric speciation followed by repeated episodes of secondary contact and localised hybridisation, rather than with parapatric speciation. This study on Telopea shows that the evidence for temporal exclusion of gene flow can be found even outside obvious geographical contexts, and that it is possible to make significant progress towards excluding parapatric speciation as a contributing evolutionary process. © 2012 Rossetto et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Milner M.L.,Australian National University | Rossetto M.,National Herbarium of NSW | Crisp M.D.,Australian National University | Weston P.H.,National Herbarium of NSW
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Premise of the study: The glacial cycles of the Quaternary did not impact Australia in the same way as Europe and North America. Here we investigate the history of population isolation, species differentiation, and hybridization in the southeastern Australian landscape, using five species of Lomatia (Proteaceae). We use a chloroplast DNA phylogeography to assess chloroplast haplotype (chlorotype) sharing among these species and whether species with shared distributions have been affected by shared biogeographic barriers. Methods: We used six chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeats (cpSSR) across five species of Lomatia, sampled across their entire distributional range in southeastern Australia. Resulting size data were combined, presented as a network, and visualized on a map. Biogeographical barriers were tested using AMOVA. To explore hypotheses of chlorotype origin, we converted the network into a cladogram and reconciled with all possible species trees using parsimony-based tree mapping. Key results: Some chlorotypes were shared across multiple species of Lomatia in the study, including between morphologically differentiated species. Chlorotypes were either widespread in distribution or geographically restricted to specific regions. Biogeographical structure was identified across the range of Lomatia. The most parsimonious reconciled tree incorporated horizontal transfer of chlorotypes. Conclusions: Lomatia shows evidence of both incomplete lineage sorting and extensive hybridization between co-occurring species. Although the species in the study appear to have responded to a number of biogeographic barriers to varying degrees, our findings identified the Hunter River Valley as the most important long-term biogeographic barrier for the genus in southeastern Australia. © 2012 Botanical Society of America. Source

Mellick R.,National Herbarium of NSW | Wilson P.D.,Macquarie University | Rossetto M.,National Herbarium of NSW
Diversity | Year: 2013

Here we investigate the interaction between ecology and climate concerning the distribution of rainforest species differentially distributed along altitudinal gradients of eastern Australia. The potential distributions of the two species closely associated with different rainforest types were modelled to infer the potential contribution of post-glacial warming on spatial distribution and altitudinal range shift. Nothofagus moorei is an integral element of cool temperate rainforest, including cloud forests at high elevation. This distinct climatic envelope is at increased risk with future global warming. Elaeocarpus grandis on the other hand is a lowland species and typical element of subtropical rainforest occupying a climatic envelope that may shift upwards into areas currently occupied by N. moorei. Climate envelope models wereused to infer range shift differences between the two species in the past (21 thousand years ago), current and future (2050) scenarios, and to provide a framework to explain observed genetic diversity/structure of both species. The models suggest continuing contraction of the highland cool temperate climatic envelope and expansion of the lowland warm subtropical envelope, with both showing a core average increase in elevation in response to post-glacial warming. Spatial and altitudinal overlap between the species climatic envelopes was at a maximum during the last glacial maximum and is predicted to be a minimum at 2050. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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