Llibre J.M.,Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol |
Schapiro J.M.,National Hemophilia Center |
Clotet B.,Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol |
Clotet B.,Lrsicaixa Foundation
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010
Virological suppression rates achieved with the new antiretroviral drugs in patients with virological failure and resistance to multiple drug classes are nearly matching the rates seen in treatment-naive patients. Knowledge of cross-resistance patterns to drugs of the same class is key for successful use of etravirine, tipranavir, and darunavir in treatment-experienced patients. Determination of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) tropism is cardinal for maraviroc. The impressive potency of raltegravir must not preclude its use with other active drugs because of its limited genetic barrier. These new agents have demonstrated superiority in virtually all efficacy parameters in their pivotal salvage trials, but comparative data between them are still very scarce. This review discusses the clinical implication of resistance to these new drugs. Specific genotypic resistance scores have been developed for tipranavir and etravirine, and mutations conferring resistance to darunavir are well understood. Determining the most active drugs and successfully combining them is the key challenge in salvage regimens. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
Gouw S.C.,Wilhelmina Childrens Hospital |
Gouw S.C.,University Utrecht |
Van Der Bom J.G.,Leiden University |
Van Der Bom J.G.,Center for Clinical Transfusion Research |
And 13 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013
BACKGROUND: For previously untreated children with severe hemophilia A, it is unclear whether the type of factor VIII product administered and switching among products are associated with the development of clinically relevant inhibitory antibodies (inhibitor development). METHODS: We evaluated 574 consecutive patients with severe hemophilia A (factor VIII activity, <0.01 IU per milliliter) who were born between 2000 and 2010 and collected data on all clotting-factor administration for up to 75 exposure days. The primary outcome was inhibitor development, which was defined as at least two positive inhibitor tests with decreased in vivo recovery of factor VIII levels. RESULTS: Inhibitory antibodies developed in 177 of the 574 children (cumulative incidence, 32.4%); 116 patients had a high-titer inhibitory antibody, defined as a peak titer of at least 5 Bethesda units per milliliter (cumulative incidence, 22.4%). Plasma-derived products conferred a risk of inhibitor development that was similar to the risk with recombinant products (adjusted hazard ratio as compared with recombinant products, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 1.49). As compared with third-generation full-length recombinant products (derived from the full-length complementary DNA sequence of human factor VIII), second-generation full-length products were associated with an increased risk of inhibitor development (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.37). The content of von Willebrand factor in the products and switching among products were not associated with the risk of inhibitor development. CONCLUSIONS: Recombinant and plasma-derived factor VIII products conferred similar risks of inhibitor development, and the content of von Willebrand factor in the products and switching among products were not associated with the risk of inhibitor development. Second-generation full-length recombinant products were associated with an increased risk, as compared with third-generation products. (Funded by Bayer Healthcare and Baxter BioScience). Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Negrier C.,Center Regional Of Traitement Of Lhemophilie |
Seuser A.,Kaiser Karl Klinik |
Forsyth A.,Christiana Care Health System Hemophilia Program |
Lobet S.,Catholic University of Louvain |
And 2 more authors.
Haemophilia | Year: 2013
Most health care professionals involved in the management of people with haemophilia (PWH) believe that exercise is beneficial and its practice is widely encouraged. This article aims to demonstrate that appropriate exercise (adapted to the special needs of the individual PWH) may be beneficial for all PWH through improved physical, psychosocial and medical status. Based on evidence gathered from the literature, many PWH, particularly those using long-term prophylaxis or exhibiting a mild/moderate bleeding phenotype, are as active as their healthy peers. PWH experience the same benefits of exercise as the general population, being physically healthier than if sedentary and enjoying a higher quality of life (QoL) through social inclusion and higher self-esteem. PWH can also gain physically from increased muscle strength, joint health, balance and flexibility achieved through physiotherapy, physical activity, exercise and sport. Conversely, very little data exist on activity levels of PWH in countries with limited resources. However, regarding specific exercise recommendations in PWH, there is a lack of randomized clinical trials, and consequently formal, evidence-based guidelines have not been produced. Based on published evidence from this review of the literature, together with the clinical experience of the authors, a series of recommendations for the safe participation of PWH in regular physical activities, exercises and sport are now proposed. In summary, we believe that appropriately modified programmes can potentially allow all PWH to experience the physical and psychosocial benefits of being physically active which may ultimately lead to an improved QoL. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shenkman B.,National Hemophilia Center |
Einav Y.,Holon Institute of Technology
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2014
Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) include several diseases, most prominently are thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). TMAs are characterized by profound thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and organ ischemia. In most cases TTP results from deficiency of ADAMTS13, the von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease leading to increase of ultra-large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) multimers. Congenital TTP is due to mutations in the gene of ADAMTS13 whereas acquired TTP is due to production of autoantibodies against ADAMTS13. In both cases severe deficiency of ADAMTS13 exists. However, the presence of ADAMTS13 activity does not rule out TTP. Diagnostic criteria of TTP are based on clinical features of neurologic and renal disfunction along with anemia and thrombocytopenia, low ADAMTS13 activity, and the presence of ULVWF. The standard treatment of TTP includes plasma exchange, protein A immunoabsobtion, immunosuppressive drugs, CD20 antibodies against B cells, and splenectomy. HUS is commonly caused by infection with Shiga-toxin produced by Escherichia coli. HUS is characterized by thrombocytopenia, anemia, renal impairment and diarrhea. Rarely, atypical HUS appears as a consequence of mutations related to the alternative pathway for the compliment system. Plasmapheresis in HUS is not efficient. Alternatively, plasma therapy and in some cases dialysis are used. TMA diseases may be associated with other infections, bone marrow transplantation, pregnancy, systemic vasculitis, and certain drugs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Collins P.,University of Cardiff |
Baudo F.,Centro Emofilia |
Knoebl P.,Medical University of Vienna |
Levesque H.,University of Rouen |
And 5 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012
Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is an auto-immune disease caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. Patients are at risk of severe and fatal hemorrhage until the inhibitor is eradicated, and guidelines recommend immunosuppression as soon as the diagnosis has been made. The optimal immunosuppressive regimen is unclear; therefore, data from 331 patients entered into the prospective EACH2 registry were analyzed. Steroids combined with cyclophosphamide resulted in more stable complete remission (70%), defined as inhibitor undetectable, factor VIII more than 70 IU/dL and immunosuppression stopped, than steroids alone (48%) or rituximab-based regimens (59%). Propensity score-matched analysis controlling for age, sex, factor VIII level, inhibitor titer, and underlying etiology confirmed that stable remission was more likely with steroids and cyclophosphamide than steroids alone (odds ratio = 3.25; 95% CI, 1.51-6.96; P < .003). The median time to complete remission was approximately 5 weeks for steroids with or without cyclophosphamide; rituximab-based regimens required approximately twice as long. Immunoglobulin administration did not improve outcome. Second-line therapy was successful in approximately 60% of cases that failed first-line therapy. Outcome was not affected by the choice of first-line therapy. The likelihood of achieving stable remission was not affected by underlying etiology but was influenced by the presenting inhibitor titer and FVIII level. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.
Baudo F.,Thrombosis and Hemostasis Unit |
Collins P.,University of Cardiff |
Huth-Kuhne A.,SRH Kurpfalzkrankenhaus Heidelberg GmbH |
Levesque H.,University of Rouen |
And 5 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012
Acquired hemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies to coagulation FVIII. Bleeding episodes at presentation are spontaneous and severe in most cases. Optimal hemostatic therapy is controversial, and available data are from observational and retrospective studies only. The EACH2 registry, a multicenter, pan-European, Web-based database, reports current patient management. The aim was to assess the control of first bleeding episodes treated with a bypassing agent (rFVIIa or aPCC), FVIII, or DDAVP among 501 registered patients. Of 482 patients with one or more bleeding episodes, 144 (30%) received no treatment for bleeding; 31 were treated with symptomatic therapy only. Among 307 patients treated with a first-line hemostatic agent, 174 (56.7%) received rFVIIa, 63 (20.5%) aPCC, 56 (18.2%) FVIII, and 14 (4.6%) DDAVP. Bleeding was controlled in 269 of 338 (79.6%) patients treated with a first-line hemostatic agent or ancillary therapy alone. Propensity score matching was applied to allow unbiased comparison between treatment groups. Bleeding control was significantly higher in patients treated with bypassing agents versus FVIII/DDAVP (93.3% vs 68.3%; P = .003). Bleeding control was similar between rFVIIa and aPCC (93.0%; P = 1). Thrombotic events were reported in 3.6% of treated patients with a similar incidence between rFVIIa (2.9%) and aPCC (4.8%). © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.
Lamorde M.,Makerere University |
Schapiro J.M.,National Hemophilia Center |
Burger D.,Radboud University Nijmegen |
Back D.J.,University of Liverpool
AIDS | Year: 2014
Objective: Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy is recommended for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV with two programmatic options: lifelong therapy for all women or treatment until cessation of breastfeeding. However, the risk of HIV resistance emerging after discontinuing efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy is unclear. We review present knowledge surrounding the emergence of resistance after stopping efavirenz-based antiretroviral regimens.Design: An expert review.Methods: A literature review was conducted to identify studies assessing risk for emergence of efavirenz-related resistance following discontinuation of efavirenz-based antiretroviral regimens containing either lamivudine and zidovudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and lamivudine. Discontinuation strategies including the use of 'pharmacologic tails' are discussed in the light of what is known about the pharmacology of the drugs.Results: We found no head-to-head comparisons between zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, lamivudine and efavirenz. The risk for HIV resistance exists, even with a 5-7 day tail of zidovudine and lamivudine. For tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, lamivudine and efavirenz, we found no clinical data to inform a recommendation for a tail.Conclusion: In order to prevent emergence of resistance, a tail of at least 2 weeks in duration may be required when discontinuing efavirenz in a regimen containing zidovudine and lamivudine. Studies are needed to characterize the risk of resistance among women who discontinue tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, lamivudine and efavirenz. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Misgav M.,National Hemophilia Center
Harefuah | Year: 2011
Uncontrolled bleeding is a major cause for early death in both military and civilian trauma. The process of massive bleeding which begins as "surgical bleed" from injured vessels may rapidly evolve into a complex coagulopathy that can be detected early, sometimes within minutes of injury. The magnitude of coagulopathy is directly related to the severity of the injury and its presence is also an independent predictor of early mortality. Therefore, an early "hemostatic resuscitation" is now the "state of the art" in trauma management. Combined mechanisms contribute to the complex coagulopathy as described herein: excessive consumption of coagulation factors and platelets, dilutional coagulopathy due to administration of large volumes of fluids, especially high molecular solutions such as Hydroxyethyl starch (HES); the use of multiple red blood cells (RBC) transfusion without sufficient fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets; acidosis that markedly attenuates thrombin generation and platelets function; hypothermia that slows down enzymatic reactions and platelets function and hyperfibrinolysis which accelerates the degradation of fibrin and might cause platelet dysfunction. An important breakthrough was the understanding that abnormal coagulation tests early in the process of trauma are not the consequences of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Supported by these new data, an aggressive approach to hemostatic resuscitation was developed which is based on the following principles: permissive hypotension to avoid "dilutional" coagulopathy, awareness of the prevention of hypothermia and acidosis and the use of hemostatic agents such as rFVIIa, fibrinogen concentrate and tranexamic acid early in the course of trauma. Importantly, the common practice of blood component therapy was revised and it is recommended that RBC, FFP and platelets will be transfused early and preferably in 1:1:1 ratio.
De Luca A.,University of Siena |
Hamers R.L.,University of Amsterdam |
Schapiro J.M.,National Hemophilia Center
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013
Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is expanding to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons in low-middle income countries, thanks to a public health approach. With 3 available drug classes, 2 ART sequencing lines are programmatically foreseen. The emergence and transmission of viral drug resistance represents a challenge to the efficacy of ART. Knowledge of HIV-1 drug resistance selection associated with specific drugs and regimens and the consequent activity of residual drug options are essential in programming ART sequencing options aimed at preserving ART efficacy for as long as possible. This article determines optimal ART sequencing options for overcoming HIV-1 drug resistance in resource-limited settings, using currently available drugs and treatment monitoring opportunities. From the perspective of drug resistance and on the basis of limited virologic monitoring data, optimal sequencing seems to involve use of a tenofovir-containing nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based first-line regimen, followed by a zidovudine-containing, protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line regimen. Other options and their consequences are explored by considering within-class and between-class sequencing opportunities, including boosted PI monotherapies and future options with integrase inhibitors. Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor resistance pathways in HIV-1 subtype C suggest an additional reason for accelerating stavudine phase out. Viral load monitoring avoids the accumulation of resistance mutations that significantly reduce the activity of next-line options. Rational use of resources, including broader access to viral load monitoring, will help ensure 3 lines of fully active treatment options, thereby increasing the duration of ART success. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
Ruiz-Saez A.,National Hemophilia Center
Hematology | Year: 2012
Hemophilia is a chronic and inherited X-linked bleeding disorder that requires life-long medical care. Hemophilia treatment is costly and complex partly because of the cost of the factor concentrates used in replacement therapy. However, the management of hemophilia is not based solely on achieving access to better treatment with safe factor concentrates; it also includes accurately diagnosing the disorder and providing specialized comprehensive care by a multidisciplinary team of specialists trained in hemophilia management. Comprehensive care for the person with hemophilia is defined as the continuous supervision of all medical and psychological aspects affecting the patient and his family and it demands the establishment of specialized centers, called Hemophilia Treatment Centers. The services that should be offered by a comprehensive hemophilia healthcare center are diverse and the multidisciplinary team should be coordinated preferably by a hematologist with the participation of other health professionals. It has been demonstrated that the benefits of establishing hemophilia centers are observed even in developing countries and that changes can be achieved when resources are re-organized, especially when education and training are provided at all levels. To reach these objectives, it is essential to have the participation of the patient and family members, and to strive to obtain the financial and legislative support from the State or Government in order to achieve a national comprehensive care program contemplating all the aspects needed for improving the quality of life for the community of patients with hemophilia and other bleeding disorders. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2012.