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The National Hellenic Research Foundation is a historic and scientific research center in Athens, Greece, Wikipedia.

Gonos E.S.,National Hellenic Research Foundation
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010

Homeostasis is a key feature of cellular lifespan. Maintenance of cellular homeostasis influences the rate of aging and its efficiency is determined by the cooperation between protein stability and resistance to stress, protein refolding, protein repair and proteolysis of damaged proteins. Protein degradation is predominately catalyzed by the proteasome which isresponsible for cell clearance of abnormal, denatured or in general damaged proteins as well as for the regulated degradation of short-lived proteins. Impaired proteasome function has been tightly correlated to aging both in vivo and in vitro and thus, emphasis has been given recently in identifying ways of its activation. A number of studies have shown that the proteasome can be activated by genetic manipulations as well as by factors that affect either its conformation and tability or the expression of its subunits and the rate of proteasome assembly. This "readjustment" has been shown to have a great impact on retention of cellular homeostasis since it promotes lifespan extension. This chapter focuses on protein homeostasis and its direct link to proteasome function, dysfunction and manipulation and provides insights regarding the activation of proteasome-mediated protein degradation that, in turn, ensures health maintenance. ©2010 Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media. Source

Koufaki M.,National Hellenic Research Foundation
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents | Year: 2014

Introduction: Lipoic acid (LA), a naturally occurring 1,2-dithiolane analog that plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained unprecedented attention as nutritional supplement and as therapeutic agent. Moreover, LA conjugates with other pharmacophores represent a promising approach toward the development of multifunctional drugs. Areas covered: The reviewed patent applications from January 2011 to April 2014 include combinations of LA with other bioactive compounds as well as LA conjugates for the treatment of a wide range of clinical conditions. Additionally, some patents disclose methods to overcome the stability problems of LA. Expert opinion: LA is currently in clinical use for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, while small clinical trials using combinations of LA with known bioactive agents have been undertaken. The use of the LA is hampered by its instability and its rapid metabolism. Thus, formulations containing LA, in a form ensuring its stability and improving its bioavailability, can have important applications as medicines, nutritional supplements or cosmeceuticals. LA hybrids with other pharmacophores endowed with various activities, possess an enormous potential to promote human health and have been the subject of numerous publications and patent applications. Nevertheless, reliable in vivo data and clinical trials are necessary to prove these beneficial effects. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Kyrtopoulos S.A.,National Hellenic Research Foundation
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2013

Although experience from the application of OMICS technologies in population-based environmental health studies is still relatively limited, the accumulated evidence shows that it can allow the identification of features (genes, proteins, and metabolites), or sets of such features, which are targeted by particular exposures or correlate with disease risk. Such features or profiles can therefore serve as biomarkers of exposure or disease risk. Blood-based OMIC profiles appear to reflect to some extent events occurring in target tissues and are associated with toxicity or disease and therefore have the potential to facilitate the elucidation of exposure-disease relationships. Further progress in this direction requires better understanding of the significance of exposure-induced network perturbations for disease initiation and progression and the development of a framework that combines agnostic searches with the utilization of prior knowledge, taking account of particular elements which characterize the structure and evolution of complex systems and brings in principles of systems biology. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 54:468-479, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

The self-assembled nanostructures formed in mixed solutions of a double hydrophilic anionic-neutral block copolymer, poly[(2-sulfamate-3-carboxylate) isoprene-b-ethylene oxide] (SCIEO), and the vesicle-forming surfactant, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), are investigated. In these solutions electrostatic interactions exist between the anionic poly[(2-sulfamate-3- carboxylate)isoprene] block and the cationic surfactant. Combined static and dynamic light scattering measurements indicate that at low copolymer concentration vesicles of DDAB with adsorbed block copolymer chains are present in the solutions. As block copolymer concentration increases the structure of the nanoassemblies transforms to a core-shell, micellar-like structure, with a poly(ethylene oxide) corona and a core formed by the complex of poly[(2-sulfamate-3-carboxylate)isoprene] chains and DDAB molecules. This transformation of global aggregate structure should be attributed to a collapse of the DDAB vesicle bilayer as the number of complexed surfactant head groups to anionic polymeric segments increases. This happens in order to satisfy the conformational requirements of the complexing polymeric block and the steric requirements in the PEO corona, which apparently overcome the existing interactions between surfactant molecules in the ordered bilayer of initial DDAB vesicles. Block copolymer decorated vesicles show lower stability to an increase in solution temperature compared to micellar-like aggregates. Both nanostructures are found to be stable to changes in solution ionic strength, due to the combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions acting within the mixed aggregates. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Pispas S.,National Hellenic Research Foundation
Soft Matter | Year: 2011

Vesicular structures composed of different components are attracting significant attention from the soft matter community both in terms of basic understanding of such complex assemblies of amphiphiles and in view of potential nanotechnological applications. In this article current developments in research concerning mixed vesicular structures assembled through interactions between synthetic block copolymers and low molecular weight surfactants are highlighted. Some future directions and perspectives for further advancement in the field are also discussed. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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