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Wu C.X.,JurongHealth | Tan W.S.,National Healthcare Services | Yu W.,JurongHealth | Toh M.P.H.S.,National Healthcare Group
BMJ Open

Introduction: The treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) involves different care providers across care sites. This fragmentation of care increases the morbidity and mortality burden, as well as acute health services use. The COPD-Integrated Care Pathway (ICP) was designed and implemented to integrate the care across different sites from primary care to acute hospital and home. It aims to reduce the prevalence of COPD among the population in the catchment, reduce risk of hospital admissions, delay or prevent the progression of the disease and reduce mortality rate by adopting a coordinated and multidisciplinary approach to the management of the patients' medical conditions. This study on the COPDICP programme is undertaken to determine the impact on processes of care, clinical outcomes and acute care utilisation. Methods and analysis: This will be a retrospective, pre-post, matched-groups study to evaluate the effectiveness of the COPD-ICP programme in improving clinical outcomes and reducing healthcare costs. Programme enrolees (intervention group) and non-enrolees (comparator group) will be matched using propensity scores. Administratively, we set 30% as our target for proportion admission difference between programme and non-programme patients. A sample size of 62 patients in each group will be needed for statistical comparisons to be made at 90% power. Adherence with recommended care elements will be measured at baseline and quarterly during 1-year follow-up. Risk of COPD-related hospitalisations as primary outcome, healthcare costs, disease progression and 1-year mortality during 1-year followup will be compared between the groups using generalised linear regression models. Ethics and dissemination: This protocol describes the implementation and proposed evaluation of the COPD-ICP programme. The described study has received ethical approval from the NHG Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB Ref: 2013/01200). Results of the study will be reported through peer-review publications and presentations at healthcare conferences. Source

Lye D.C.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital | Lee V.J.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital | Sun Y.,National Healthcare Group | Leo Y.S.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital
International Journal of Infectious Diseases

Objectives: In Singapore, dengue primarily affects adults. This study aimed to determine if older dengue patients in Singapore have greater morbidity and mortality. Methods: All laboratory diagnosed dengue patients admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital in 2004 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases were re-classified into dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever based on World Health Organization criteria. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and outcome data of patients aged ≥60 years and <60 years were collected. Results: Of 1971 laboratory confirmed dengue cases, 66 were aged ≥60 years. Older patients were significantly less likely to be male (44% vs. 64%), and more likely to have diabetes (17% vs. 2%), hypertension (48% vs. 4%), ischemic heart disease (6% vs. 0.1%), hyperlipidemia (18% vs. 1%), and secondary dengue infections (64% vs. 34%). Clinical features were similar except older patients were significantly less likely to report fever (92% vs. 99%), or have leukopenia (32% vs. 51%) or hemoconcentration (0 vs. 5%) on admission. Older patients had similar dengue hemorrhagic fever, bleeding, hypotension, severe thrombocytopenia, and elevated transaminase rates. Length of hospital stay, risk of intensive care unit admission, and outcome of death were not statistically different. Conclusions: Despite greater co-morbidity and secondary dengue infection, older dengue patients in Singapore did not have greater morbidity or mortality. © 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Source

Ko Y.,National University of Singapore | Lee J.Y.-C.,National University of Singapore | Toh M.P.H.S.,National Healthcare Services | Tang W.-E.,National Healthcare Services | Tan A.S.-L.,National Healthcare Group
Health Promotion International

Due to the concern of equating correct pronunciation with comprehension and the differences in health care systems, existing health literacy (HL) instruments may not be appropriate for or applicable to English-speaking countries other than the USA. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Health Literacy Test for Singapore (HLTS), which is an adapted version of the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Three hundred and two patients were interviewed and administered the HLTS, the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), a demographic questionnaire, and a knowledge test of chronic diseases. The convergent validity of HLTS was determined by examining the association between HLTS and NVS HL levels, whereas predictive validity was tested by examining the difference in knowledge of chronic conditions between the two HLTS HL (i.e. adequate and inadequate HL) groups. Bivariate correlation of HLTS HL levels with age and education was assessed to test a priori hypotheses that patients with inadequate HL were older and less educated. The results showed that HLTS displayed good internal reliability (Cronbachs alpha = 0.87). The correlation between HLTS and NVS was moderate (γ 0.55; P = 0.005) and individuals with inadequate HL were older (P = 0.002) and less educated (P = 0.007). In addition, patients with adequate HL had a higher mean score on the chronic disease knowledge test (P = 0.036). In conclusion, the HLTS is a valid and reliable measure for assessing Singaporeans ability to read and comprehend health-related materials written in English. © 2012 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Toh M.P.H.S.,National Healthcare Group | Kannan P.,National Healthcare Services | Chen Y.,National Healthcare Services | Chng F.L.C.,Khoo Teck Puat Hospital | Tang W.E.,National Healthcare Services

Introduction: A novel H1N1 vaccine was manufactured in response to the pandemic in 2009. This study describes the willingness to be vaccinated for H1N1 among healthcare workers (HCWs) in primary healthcare clinics with and without chronic medical conditions, their reasons for refusing vaccination and whether they sought additional information to make an informed decision for the vaccination. Materials and methods: An anonymous survey was conducted in November 2009 among all medical, nursing, allied health and operations HCWs in nine primary care clinics in Singapore. Participants were asked if they had any chronic medical conditions associated with influenza-related complications (example: asthma, stroke, heart disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus, renal disease), their perception towards vaccination for H1N1 and against seasonal influenza within the preceding 2 years. Results: The initial response rate was 80%, of which 711 (54.7%) of the completed surveys were analysed. Among the 711 respondents, 16.6% reported having at least 1 chronic disease. Asthma (10.8%), hypertension (10.4%) and dyslipidaemia (9.8%) were the main chronic conditions. Only 39.4% of respondents were willing to be vaccinated against H1N1. Males were 2.07 (95% CI 1.19-3.62) times more likely than females to receive the H1N1 vaccination; the 45-54 and 55+ years old were 2.12 (95% CI 1.06-4.24) and 2.44 (95% CI 1.13-5.27) times more willing than those below 25 years old; and those who considered accepting the seasonal influenza vaccine were 7.0 times more likely than those who did not (95%CI 4.48-10.92). The 2 principal barriers were "fear of side effects" and "unsure of vaccine's effectiveness" Although 78% attended some H1N1-related talks, only 7% of all HCWs felt that they had sufficient information. Most wanted more information about the vaccine's safety profile and contraindications. Conclusion: Fewer than 40% of HCWs expressed willingness to receive the H1N1 vaccination, lower than past rates of influenza vaccine. HCWs in primary care clinics who had a chronic condition did not perceive themselves to be at higher risk of developing H1N1-related complications and were not more willing than the rest of the HCWs to accept H1N1 vaccination. Vaccine's side effects and effectiveness were the main concerns. Uptake of H1N1 vaccine may improve with targeted health information covering the vaccine's safety profile. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Thein T.L.,Communicable Disease Center | Leo Y.-S.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital | Lee V.J.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital | Lee V.J.,National University of Singapore | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

We developed a probability equation and a decision tree from 1,973 predominantly dengue serotype 1 hospitalized adult dengue patients in 2004 to predict progression to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), applied in our clinic since March 2007. The parameters predicting DHF were clinical bleeding, high serum urea, low serum protein, and low lymphocyte proportion. This study validated these in a predominantly dengue serotype 2 cohort in 2007. The 1,017 adult dengue patients admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore had a median age of 35 years. Of 933 patients without DHF on admission, 131 progressed to DHF. The probability equation predicted DHF with a sensitivity (Sn) of 94%, specificity (Sp) 17%, positive predictive value (PPV) 16%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 94%. The decision tree predicted DHF with a Sn of 99%, Sp 12%, PPV 16%, and NPV 99%. Both tools performed well despite a switch in predominant dengue serotypes. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

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