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Aberdeen, United Kingdom

Kelly T.B.,University of Dundee | Tolson D.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Day T.,National Health Service Grampian | McColgan G.,University of Stirling | And 2 more authors.
Health and Social Care in the Community | Year: 2013

This article reports a study exploring what older people believe would enable them to adjust to and gain maximum benefit from wearing a hearing aid. A mixed methods approach was employed during 2006 involving interviews with key stakeholders, a survey across three Scottish health board areas and focus groups. Nine key stakeholders from six national and local organisations were interviewed about the needs of older people being fitted with hearing aids. In total, 240 older people belonging to three different types of hearing impaired older people were surveyed: long-term users of hearing aids, new hearing aid users, and those on a waiting list from urban and rural areas (response rate=24%). A series of eight follow-up focus groups with 31 audiology patients was held. Health professionals appeared to neglect appropriate provision of information and overly rely on technological interventions. Of 154 older people already fitted with hearing aids, only 52% of hearing aid users reported receiving enough practical help post fitting and only 41% reported receiving enough support. Approximately 40% reported not feeling confident in the use of their aids or their controls. Older people wanted more information than they received both before and after hearing aid fitting. Information provision and attention to the psychosocial aspects of care are key to enabling older people to adjust and optimise hearing aid benefit. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Glasier A.F.,National Health Service Lothian | Glasier A.F.,University of Edinburgh | Cameron S.T.,National Health Service Lothian | Cameron S.T.,University of Edinburgh | And 11 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2010

Background: Emergency contraception can prevent unintended pregnancies, but current methods are only effective if used as soon as possible after sexual intercourse and before ovulation. We compared the efficacy and safety of ulipristal acetate with levonorgestrel for emergency contraception. Methods: Women with regular menstrual cycles who presented to a participating family planning clinic requesting emergency contraception within 5 days of unprotected sexual intercourse were eligible for enrolment in this randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority trial. 2221 women were randomly assigned to receive a single, supervised dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate (n=1104) or 1·5 mg levonorgestrel (n=1117) orally. Allocation was by block randomisation stratified by centre and time from unprotected sexual intercourse to treatment, with allocation concealment by identical opaque boxes labelled with a unique treatment number. Participants were masked to treatment assignment whereas investigators were not. Follow-up was done 5-7 days after expected onset of next menses. The primary endpoint was pregnancy rate in women who received emergency contraception within 72 h of unprotected sexual intercourse, with a non-inferiority margin of 1% point difference between groups (limit of 1·6 for odds ratio). Analysis was done on the efficacy-evaluable population, which excluded women lost to follow-up, those aged over 35 years, women with unknown follow-up pregnancy status, and those who had re-enrolled in the study. Additionally, we undertook a meta-analysis of our trial and an earlier study to assess the efficacy of ulipristal acetate compared with levonorgestrel. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00551616. Findings: In the efficacy-evaluable population, 1696 women received emergency contraception within 72 h of sexual intercourse (ulipristal acetate, n=844; levonorgestrel, n=852). There were 15 pregnancies in the ulipristal acetate group (1·8%, 95% CI 1·0-3·0) and 22 in the levonorgestrel group (2·6%, 1·7-3·9; odds ratio [OR] 0·68, 95% CI 0·35-1·31). In 203 women who received emergency contraception between 72 h and 120 h after sexual intercourse, there were three pregnancies, all of which were in the levonorgestrel group. The most frequent adverse event was headache (ulipristal acetate, 213 events [19·3%] in 1104 women; levonorgestrel, 211 events [18·9%] in 1117 women). Two serious adverse events were judged possibly related to use of emergency contraception; a case of dizziness in the ulipristal acetate group and a molar pregnancy in the levonorgestrel group. In the meta-analysis (0-72 h), there were 22 (1·4%) pregnancies in 1617 women in the ulipristal acetate group and 35 (2·2%) in 1625 women in the levonorgestrel group (OR 0·58, 0·33-0·99; p=0·046). Interpretation: Ulipristal acetate provides women and health-care providers with an effective alternative for emergency contraception that can be used up to 5 days after unprotected sexual intercourse. Funding: HRA Pharma. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lozano-Montoya I.,Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal | Velez-Diaz-Pallares M.,Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal | Abraha I.,Italian National Research Center on Aging | Cherubini A.,Italian National Research Center on Aging | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association | Year: 2016

Background: Pressure ulcers (PUs) are frequent in older patients, and the healing process is usually challenging, therefore, prevention should be the first strategic line in PU management. Nonpharmacologic interventions may play a role in the prevention of PUs in older people, but most systematic reviews (SRs) have not addressed this specific population using convincing outcome measures. Objective: To summarize and critically appraise the evidence from SRs of the primary studies on nonpharmacologic interventions to prevent PUs in older patients. Design: SR and meta-analysis of comparative studies. Data sources: PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, and CINHAL (from inception to October 2013) were searched. A new search for updates in the Cochrane Database was launched in July 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: SRs that included at least 1 comparative study evaluating any nonpharmacologic intervention to prevent PUs in older patients, in any healthcare setting, were selected. Any primary study with experimental design was then identified and included. Data extraction: From each primary study, quality assessment was undertaken as specified by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation working group. Interventions were identified and compared among different studies to explore the possibility of performing a meta-analysis, using the incidence of new pressure ulcers as the main outcome measure. Results: One hundred ten SRs with 65 primary studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. The most frequent interventions explored in these trials were support surfaces (41 studies), repositioning (8), and nutrition interventions (5). High quality of evidence was not found for any intervention, mainly because of a high risk of bias and imprecision. There is moderate quality evidence to support the use of alternating pressure support mattresses over usual hospital mattresses in medical and surgical inpatients, low quality evidence to support constant low pressure devices and Australian medical sheepskin over usual mattresses, and very low quality evidence to support nutrition interventions in hospital settings. No recommendations on hydration, repositioning, standardized risk assessment, or multicomponent interventions can be done. Conclusions: In older patients at high risk to suffer PUs, high-technology and low- technology support surfaces can significantly reduce the incidence of PUs. Nutrition intervention may also have a role in preventing PUs in hospital settings. More evidence is needed to support other recommendations, which is specially lacking for repositioning. © 2016 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.

McGowan S.,University of Glasgow | Jones J.,National Health Service Greater Glasgow and Clyde | McMillan D.,Royal Infirmary | McLaughlin K.,National Health Service Greater Glasgow and Clyde | And 44 more authors.
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2015

Objectives To analyze data from the Scottish capillary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) screening program for hypothyroidism in Down syndrome to identify a threshold for capillary TSH elevation below which low venous free thyroxine (fT4) (<9 pmol/L) and/or frank venous TSH elevation (>10 mU/L) range is unlikely. Study design Review of proformas prospectively submitted on all children with Down syndrome referred via the screening program between 2003 and 2013. Results Ninety-nine patients with Down syndrome (50 females, 49 males) were identified, 76 school-age (≥5 years) and 23 preschool (<5 years), mean (range) age at referral 9.4 (0.9-18.1) years. Pearson correlation between capillary TSH and venous TSH was 0.814; between capillary TSH and venous fT4 -0.522 (P = .01). Receiver operator curve analysis showed that capillary TSH values of 4 and 6 mU/L were 95.9% and 73.5% sensitive, 5.8% and 80.8% specific, respectively, in predicting venous TSH >10 mU/L. Fifty-three children had capillary TSH values of 4-5.9 mU/L of whom only one, a boy of 15.8 years, had subnormal venous fT4 (<9 pmol/L), and venous TSH >10 mU/L was found in 13 (4 preschool). Conclusions Venous fT4 is normal in almost all patients with Down syndrome with capillary TSH 4-6 mU/L. We propose an algorithm incorporating rescreening by finger prick after 6 months, rather than venepuncture, in schoolaged children with borderline capillary TSH elevation. Further data are needed before this approach can be recommended for preschool children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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