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National Health Research Institute and University of Minnesota | Date: 2016-07-12

Disclosed is an in vitro screening method for identifying an antagonist-to-agonist allosteric modifier of a mu-opioid receptor and an in vivo method for confirming that a test compound is such a modifier of a mu-opioid receptor. Also disclosed is a method for treating an opioid receptor-associated condition using a compound of Formula (I) and a pharmaceutical composition containing the same.

National Health Research Institute and Lu Hai Wang | Date: 2015-03-26

The present invention relates to a recombinant adenoviral vector for generating immunity against enterovirus infection. In one embodiment, the recombinant adenoviral vector of the invention comprises an expression cassette encoding a PI protein and a 3 CD protease of an enterovirus. In another embodiment, the recombinant adenoviral vector of the invention comprises an expression cassette encoding a 3C protease or a 3CD protease of an enterovirus. The present invention also relates to a vaccine composition comprising the recombinant adenoviral vector as described. A method of inducing an immune response in a subject against enterovirus infection using the recombinant adenoviral vector and the vaccine composition is provided. Further provided is a method for producing virus like particles of an enterovirus by expressing the adenoviral vector as described herein in mammalian cells.

National Taiwan University, National Chiao Tung University and National Health Research Institute | Date: 2015-04-30

The invention utilizes virtual screening strategy to seek for current market drugs as anti-schizophrenia therapy drug repurposing. Drug repurposing strategy finds new uses other than the original medical indications of existing drugs. Finding new indications for such drugs will benefit patients who are in needs for a potential new therapy sooner since known drugs are usually with acceptable safety and pharmacokinetic profiles. In this study, repurposing marketed drugs for DAAO inhibitor as new schizophrenia therapy was performed with virtual screening on marketed drugs and its metabolites. The identified and available drugs and compounds were further confirmed with in vitro DAAO enzymatic inhibitory assay.

Taipei Medical University and National Health Research Institute | Date: 2015-04-09

Fused bicycle indol, indoline, azoindole, or azoindoline compounds of Formula (I) set forth herein. Also disclosed are pharmaceutically acceptable salts of these compounds and pharmaceutical compositions containing the same. Further disclosed is a method for treating cancer, e.g., glioma, prostate cancer, and colorectal cancer, with these compounds.

Holmans P.A.,University of Cardiff | Breen G.,King's College London | Breen G.,National Health Research Institute
Nature Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of psychiatric disorders have identified multiple genetic associations with such disorders, but better methods are needed to derive the underlying biological mechanisms that these signals indicate. We sought to identify biological pathways in GWAS data from over 60,000 participants from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. We developed an analysis framework to rank pathways that requires only summary statistics. We combined this score across disorders to find common pathways across three adult psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder. Histone methylation processes showed the strongest association, and we also found statistically significant evidence for associations with multiple immune and neuronal signaling pathways and with the postsynaptic density. Our study indicates that risk variants for psychiatric disorders aggregate in particular biological pathways and that these pathways are frequently shared between disorders. Our results confirm known mechanisms and suggest several novel insights into the etiology of psychiatric disorders. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Yakel J.L.,National Health Research Institute
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2013

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) can regulate neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system by acting on both the cys-loop ligand-gated nicotinic ACh receptor channels (nAChRs) and the G protein-coupled muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs). The hippocampus is an important area in the brain for learning and memory, where both nAChRs and mAChRs are expressed. The primary cholinergic input to the hippocampus arises from the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca, the activation of which can activate both nAChRs and mAChRs in the hippocampus and regulate synaptic communication and induce oscillations that are thought to be important for cognitive function. Dysfunction in the hippocampal cholinergic system has been linked with cognitive deficits and a variety of neurological disorders and diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. My lab has focused on the role of the nAChRs in regulating hippocampal function, from understanding the expression and functional properties of the various subtypes of nAChRs, and what role these receptors may be playing in regulating synaptic plasticity. Here, I will briefly review this work, and where we are going in our attempts to further understand the role of these receptors in learning and memory, as well as in disease and neuroprotection. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA).

Adelman K.,National Health Research Institute
Nature reviews. Genetics | Year: 2012

Recent years have witnessed a sea change in our understanding of transcription regulation: whereas traditional models focused solely on the events that brought RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to a gene promoter to initiate RNA synthesis, emerging evidence points to the pausing of Pol II during early elongation as a widespread regulatory mechanism in higher eukaryotes. Current data indicate that pausing is particularly enriched at genes in signal-responsive pathways. Here the evidence for pausing of Pol II from recent high-throughput studies will be discussed, as well as the potential interconnected functions of promoter-proximally paused Pol II.

Lai A.Y.,National Health Research Institute | Wade P.A.,National Health Research Institute
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2011

The nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylase (NuRD; also known as Mi-2) complex regulates gene expression at the level of chromatin. The NuRD complex has been identified using both genetic and molecular analyses-as a key determinant of differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells and during development in various model systems. Similar to other chromatin remodellers, such as SWI/SNF and Polycomb complexes, NuRD has also been implicated in the regulation of transcriptional events that are integral to oncogenesis and cancer progression. Emerging molecular details regarding the recruitment of NuRD to specific loci during development, and the modulation of these events in cancer, are used to illustrate how the inappropriate localization of the complex could contribute to tumour biology. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Zhang P.,National Health Research Institute
Blood | Year: 2013

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptors (TβRs) are essential components for TGF-β signal transduction in T cells, yet the mechanisms by which the receptors are regulated remain poorly understood. We show here that Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) regulates TGF-β receptor I (TβRI) and II (TβRII) expression in CD4(+) T cells and subsequently affects Smad2/3-mediated TGF-β signal transduction. Inhibition of PARP-1 led to the upregulation of both TβRI and TβRII, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms were distinct. PARP-1 selectively bound to the promoter of TβRII, whereas the enzymatic activity of PARP-1 was responsible for the inhibition of TβRI expression. Importantly, inhibition of PARP-1 also enhanced expression of TβRs in human CD4(+) T cells. Thus, PARP-1 regulates TβR expression and TGF-β signaling in T cells.

Harry G.J.,National Health Research Institute
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Microglia are critical nervous system-specific cells influencing brain development, maintenance of the neural environment, response to injury, and repair. They contribute to neuronal proliferation and differentiation, pruning of dying neurons, synaptic remodeling and clearance of debris and aberrant proteins. Colonization of the brain occurs during gestation with an expansion following birth with localization stimulated by programmed neuronal death, synaptic pruning, and axonal degeneration. Changes in microglia phenotype relate to cellular processes including specific neurotransmitter, pattern recognition, or immune-related receptor activation. Upon activation, microglia cells have the capacity to release a number of substances, e.g., cytokines, chemokines, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species, which could be detrimental or beneficial to the surrounding cells. With aging, microglia shift their morphology and may display diminished capacity for normal functions related to migration, clearance, and the ability to shift from a pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory state to regulate injury and repair. This shift in microglia potentially contributes to increased susceptibility and neurodegeneration as a function of age. In the current review, information is provided on the colonization of the brain by microglia, the expression of various pattern recognition receptors to regulate migration and phagocytosis, and the shift in related functions that occur in normal aging.

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