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Patent
National Health Research Institute and University of Minnesota | Date: 2016-07-12

Disclosed is an in vitro screening method for identifying an antagonist-to-agonist allosteric modifier of a mu-opioid receptor and an in vivo method for confirming that a test compound is such a modifier of a mu-opioid receptor. Also disclosed is a method for treating an opioid receptor-associated condition using a compound of Formula (I) and a pharmaceutical composition containing the same.


Patent
National Health Research Institute and Lu Hai Wang | Date: 2015-03-26

The present invention relates to a recombinant adenoviral vector for generating immunity against enterovirus infection. In one embodiment, the recombinant adenoviral vector of the invention comprises an expression cassette encoding a PI protein and a 3 CD protease of an enterovirus. In another embodiment, the recombinant adenoviral vector of the invention comprises an expression cassette encoding a 3C protease or a 3CD protease of an enterovirus. The present invention also relates to a vaccine composition comprising the recombinant adenoviral vector as described. A method of inducing an immune response in a subject against enterovirus infection using the recombinant adenoviral vector and the vaccine composition is provided. Further provided is a method for producing virus like particles of an enterovirus by expressing the adenoviral vector as described herein in mammalian cells.


Patent
National Taiwan University, National Chiao Tung University and National Health Research Institute | Date: 2015-04-30

The invention utilizes virtual screening strategy to seek for current market drugs as anti-schizophrenia therapy drug repurposing. Drug repurposing strategy finds new uses other than the original medical indications of existing drugs. Finding new indications for such drugs will benefit patients who are in needs for a potential new therapy sooner since known drugs are usually with acceptable safety and pharmacokinetic profiles. In this study, repurposing marketed drugs for DAAO inhibitor as new schizophrenia therapy was performed with virtual screening on marketed drugs and its metabolites. The identified and available drugs and compounds were further confirmed with in vitro DAAO enzymatic inhibitory assay.


Patent
Taipei Medical University and National Health Research Institute | Date: 2015-04-09

Fused bicycle indol, indoline, azoindole, or azoindoline compounds of Formula (I) set forth herein. Also disclosed are pharmaceutically acceptable salts of these compounds and pharmaceutical compositions containing the same. Further disclosed is a method for treating cancer, e.g., glioma, prostate cancer, and colorectal cancer, with these compounds.


Patent
Taipei Medical University, National Health Research Institute and Yen | Date: 2017-02-15

Fused bicycle indol, indoline, azoindole, or azoindoline compounds of Formula (I) set forth herein. Also disclosed are pharmaceutically acceptable salts of these compounds and pharmaceutical compositions containing the same. Further disclosed is a method for treating cancer, e.g., glioma, prostate cancer, and colorectal cancer, with these compounds.


Patent
National Health Research Institute | Date: 2016-05-19

A microfluidic dual-well device is disclosed. The device comprises: (a) a first substrate having a first end, a second end, and a culture microwell forming portion; (b) a plurality of culture microwells; (c) a second substrate having a first end, a second end, and a capture microwell forming portion, the two ends of the second substrate being respectively bounded to the two ends of the first substrate; (d) a plurality of capture microwells; (e) a microfluidic channel; (f) a microfluidic inlet port; and (g) a microfluidic outlet port; wherein the microfluidic channel is in fluidic connections with the culture microwells, the capture microwells, and the inlet and outlet ports. Methods of capturing and transferring a single cell or a single cell colony for culture, and method of transferring a target cell from a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structure of culture microwells to a culture plate for culture are also disclosed.


Holmans P.A.,University of Cardiff | Breen G.,King's College London | Breen G.,National Health Research Institute
Nature Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of psychiatric disorders have identified multiple genetic associations with such disorders, but better methods are needed to derive the underlying biological mechanisms that these signals indicate. We sought to identify biological pathways in GWAS data from over 60,000 participants from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. We developed an analysis framework to rank pathways that requires only summary statistics. We combined this score across disorders to find common pathways across three adult psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder. Histone methylation processes showed the strongest association, and we also found statistically significant evidence for associations with multiple immune and neuronal signaling pathways and with the postsynaptic density. Our study indicates that risk variants for psychiatric disorders aggregate in particular biological pathways and that these pathways are frequently shared between disorders. Our results confirm known mechanisms and suggest several novel insights into the etiology of psychiatric disorders. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Adelman K.,National Health Research Institute
Nature reviews. Genetics | Year: 2012

Recent years have witnessed a sea change in our understanding of transcription regulation: whereas traditional models focused solely on the events that brought RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to a gene promoter to initiate RNA synthesis, emerging evidence points to the pausing of Pol II during early elongation as a widespread regulatory mechanism in higher eukaryotes. Current data indicate that pausing is particularly enriched at genes in signal-responsive pathways. Here the evidence for pausing of Pol II from recent high-throughput studies will be discussed, as well as the potential interconnected functions of promoter-proximally paused Pol II.


Zhang P.,National Health Research Institute
Blood | Year: 2013

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptors (TβRs) are essential components for TGF-β signal transduction in T cells, yet the mechanisms by which the receptors are regulated remain poorly understood. We show here that Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) regulates TGF-β receptor I (TβRI) and II (TβRII) expression in CD4(+) T cells and subsequently affects Smad2/3-mediated TGF-β signal transduction. Inhibition of PARP-1 led to the upregulation of both TβRI and TβRII, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms were distinct. PARP-1 selectively bound to the promoter of TβRII, whereas the enzymatic activity of PARP-1 was responsible for the inhibition of TβRI expression. Importantly, inhibition of PARP-1 also enhanced expression of TβRs in human CD4(+) T cells. Thus, PARP-1 regulates TβR expression and TGF-β signaling in T cells.


Harry G.J.,National Health Research Institute
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Microglia are critical nervous system-specific cells influencing brain development, maintenance of the neural environment, response to injury, and repair. They contribute to neuronal proliferation and differentiation, pruning of dying neurons, synaptic remodeling and clearance of debris and aberrant proteins. Colonization of the brain occurs during gestation with an expansion following birth with localization stimulated by programmed neuronal death, synaptic pruning, and axonal degeneration. Changes in microglia phenotype relate to cellular processes including specific neurotransmitter, pattern recognition, or immune-related receptor activation. Upon activation, microglia cells have the capacity to release a number of substances, e.g., cytokines, chemokines, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species, which could be detrimental or beneficial to the surrounding cells. With aging, microglia shift their morphology and may display diminished capacity for normal functions related to migration, clearance, and the ability to shift from a pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory state to regulate injury and repair. This shift in microglia potentially contributes to increased susceptibility and neurodegeneration as a function of age. In the current review, information is provided on the colonization of the brain by microglia, the expression of various pattern recognition receptors to regulate migration and phagocytosis, and the shift in related functions that occur in normal aging.

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