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Tygerberg, South Africa

Joubert J.,National Health Laboratory Service NHLS | Joubert J.,University of the Free State | Joubert S.,Kimberley Hospital Complex | Raubenheimer J.,University of the Free State | Louw V.,University of the Free State
Transfusion and Apheresis Science | Year: 2014

This audit in chronically anaemic adult patients assesses whether red cell concentrate is transfused according to guidelines, and evaluates the impact of training interventions, compared with a similar audit conducted in 2010. Retrospectively, 25 transfusion episodes were audited for appropriateness, the investigation of anaemia, threshold achievement, wastage, and informed consent. After training interventions, a further 25 episodes were prospectively analysed. The effects of current training interventions were not shown to have a statistically significant impact. Compared to a 2010 audit, however, a statistically significant improvement was demonstrated in transfusion practice, suggesting that training interventions may lead to sustainable long-term improvements. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Fairlie L.,University of Witwatersrand | Fairlie L.,WHI Wits Institute for Sexual and Reproductive Health | Fairlie L.,Metabolic Unit | Beylis N.C.,National Health Laboratory Service NHLS | And 6 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: There are limited data on the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), estimated at 0.6-6.7%, in African children with tuberculosis. We undertook a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of MDR-TB in children with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) at two hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa.Methods: Culture-confirmed cases of MTB in children under 14 years, attending two academic hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa during 2008 were identified and hospital records of children diagnosed with drug-resistant TB were reviewed, including clinical and radiological outcomes at 6 and 12 months post-diagnosis. Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) was performed using the automated liquid broth MGIT™ 960 method. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed using the MGIT™ 960 method for both first and second-line anti-TB drugs.Results: 1317 children were treated for tuberculosis in 2008 between the two hospitals where the study was conducted. Drug susceptibility testing was undertaken in 148 (72.5%) of the 204 children who had culture-confirmed tuberculosis. The prevalence of isoniazid-resistance was 14.2% (n = 21) (95%CI, 9.0-20.9%) and the prevalence of MDR-TB 8.8% (n = 13) (95%CI, 4.8-14.6%). The prevalence of HIV co-infection was 52.1% in children with drug susceptible-TB and 53.9% in children with MDR-TB. Ten (76.9%) of the 13 children with MDR-TB received appropriate treatment and four (30.8%) died at a median of 2.8 months (range 0.1-4.0 months) after the date of tuberculosis investigation.Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in children in Johannesburg in a setting with a high prevalence of HIV co-infection, although no association between HIV infection and MDR-TB was found in this study. Routine HIV and drug-susceptibility testing is warranted to optimize the management of childhood tuberculosis in settings such as ours. © 2011 Fairlie et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Cohen K.A.,Harvard University | Abeel T.,The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard | McGuire A.M.,The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard | Desjardins C.A.,The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard | And 32 more authors.
International Journal of Mycobacteriology | Year: 2015

The largest global outbreak of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) was identified in Tugela Ferry, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa in 2005. The antecedents and timing of the emergence of drug resistance in this fatal epidemic XDR outbreak are unknown, and it is unclear whether drug resistance in this region continues to be driven by clonal spread or by the development of de novo resistance. A whole genome sequencing and drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed on 337 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) collected in KZN from 2008 to 2013, in addition to three historical isolates, one of which was isolated during the Tugela Ferry outbreak. Using a variety of whole genome comparative approaches, 11 drug-resistant clones of M.tb circulating from 2008 to 2013 were identified, including a 50-member clone of XDR M.tb that was highly related to the Tugela Ferry XDR outbreak strain. It was calculated that the evolutionary trajectory from first-line drug resistance to XDR in this clone spanned more than four decades and began at the start of the antibiotic era. It was also observed that frequent de novo evolution of MDR and XDR was present, with 56 and 9 independent evolutions, respectively. Thus, ongoing amplification of drug-resistance in KwaZulu-Natal is driven by both clonal spread and de novo acquisition of resistance. In drug-resistant TB, isoniazid resistance was overwhelmingly the initial resistance mutation to be acquired, which would not be detected by current rapid molecular diagnostics that assess only rifampicin resistance. © 2015.

O'Donnell M.R.,Columbia University | O'Donnell M.R.,The New School | O'Donnell M.R.,Center for Programme of Research in South Africa | Pillay M.,National Health Laboratory Service NHLS | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2015

Background: Capreomycin is a key antimycobacterial drug in treatment of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). Drug-susceptibility testing (DST) for capreomycin is not routinely performed in newly diagnosed XDR-TB in South Africa. We performed this study to assess the prevalence, clinical significance, and molecular epidemiology of capreomycin resistance in newly diagnosed patients with XDR-TB in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with XDR-TB admitted to a TB referral hospital without previous XDR-TB treatment. A subset of isolates had extended DST (including capreomycin), mutational analysis, and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. Results: A total of 216 eligible patients with XDR-TB were identified. The majority were treated with capreomycin (72%), were young (median age: 35.5 years), and were female (56%). One hundred five (76%) were HIV+, and 109 (66%) were on antiretroviral therapy. A subset of 52 patients had full DST. A total of 47/52 (90.4%) patients with XDR-TB were capreomycin resistant. Capreomycin-resistant patients experienced worse mortality and culture conversion than capreomycin susceptible, although this difference was not statistically significant. The A1401G mutation in the rrs gene was associated with capreomycin resistance. The majority of capreomycin-resistant strains were F15/LAM4/KZN lineage (80%), and clustering was common in these isolates (92.5%). Conclusions: Capreomycin resistance is common in patients with XDR-TB in KwaZulu-Natal, is predominantly because of ongoing province-wide transmission of a highly resistant strain, and is associated with high mortality. Capreomycin should be included in routine DST in all patients with XDR-TB. New drug regimens that do not include injectable agents should be operationally tested as empiric treatment in XDR-TB. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cassim N.,National Health Laboratory Service NHLS | Coetzee L.,National Health Laboratory Service NHLS | Coetzee L.,University of Witwatersrand | Motlonye B.,National Health Laboratory Service NHLS | And 3 more authors.
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics | Year: 2013

The NHLS performs close to 4 million CD4 tests per annum for the public sector in South Africa through a network of 60 CD4 testing laboratories. CD4 laboratory data provides an assessment of the number of patients on ART and HIV-positive patients in the pre-ART wellness programs. This study aims to develop a laboratory based Comprehensive Care, Management and Treatment of HIV and AIDS (CCMT) programme status reporting system for CD4 testing at three health facilities in the Ekurhuleni health district using a newly developed CCMT request form, the Laboratory Information System (LIMS) and Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW). The study will generate monitoring and evaluation data to assist in the management of health facilities through a national electronic corporate data warehouse. © 2013 IMIA and IOS Press.

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