National Health Institute Doutor Ricardo Jorge INSA

Lisbon, Portugal

National Health Institute Doutor Ricardo Jorge INSA

Lisbon, Portugal

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Morgado J.P.,University of Lisbon | Morgado J.P.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Monteiro C.P.,University of Lisbon | Monteiro C.P.,The Interdisciplinary Center | And 11 more authors.
Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme | Year: 2016

Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools.


PubMed | The Interdisciplinary Center, University of Lisbon, European University of Portugal and National Health Institute Doutor Ricardo Jorge INSA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme | Year: 2016

Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools.


Afonso C.,Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere IPMA | Afonso C.,CIIMAR – Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental | Costa S.,Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere IPMA | Cardoso C.,BioAtlantis | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2015

The Se, Hg, and methylmercury (MeHg) levels in raw, cooked (boiled and grilled), and canned tuna (Thunnus spp.) were determined before and after an in vitro digestion, thereby enabling the calculation of the respective bioaccessibility percentages. A risk-benefit evaluation of raw and canned tuna on the basis of the Se and MeHg data was performed. Selenium bioaccessibility was high in tuna, though slightly lower in canned than in raw products. Mercury levels were high in raw and cooked tuna. Hg bioaccessibility percentages were low (39-48%) in the cooked tuna and even lower (<20%) in canned tuna. For the bioaccessible fraction, all molar Se:MeHg ratios were higher than one (between 10 and 74). A probabilistic assessment of MeHg risk vs Se benefit showed that while a weekly meal of canned tuna presents very low risk, raw, boiled, and grilled tuna consumption should not exceed a monthly meal, at least, for pregnant and nursing women. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Afonso C.,Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere IPMA | Costa S.,Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere IPMA | Cardoso C.,BioAtlantis | Bandarra N.M.,Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere IPMA | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The bioaccessibility of total lipids, EPA, DHA, Se, Hg, and MeHg in raw and cooked meagre (Argyrosomus regius) was studied by using an in vitro digestion method. A risk-benefit assessment of raw and cooked meagre on the basis of the bioaccessibility data was carried out. The bioaccessibility of total lipids was generally high in raw and cooked meagre with exception of grilled fish. For EPA and DHA, bioaccessibility percentages were low never surpassing the 50% in raw, boiled, and grilled meagre. The bioaccessibility percentage of Se was equal or higher than 82% (grilling treatment). Likewise, for Hg and MeHg, high bioaccessibility values were determined with exception of grilled meagre, displaying lower values of 54% and 64%, respectively. The risk-benefit probabilistic assessment brought about a recommendation of a maximum consumption of two weekly meals for boiled or roasted meagre and three weekly meals for grilled meagre. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere IPMA, BioAtlantis and National Health Institute Doutor Ricardo Jorge INSA
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2014

The bioaccessibility of total lipids, EPA, DHA, Se, Hg, and MeHg in raw and cooked meagre (Argyrosomus regius) was studied by using an in vitro digestion method. A risk-benefit assessment of raw and cooked meagre on the basis of the bioaccessibility data was carried out. The bioaccessibility of total lipids was generally high in raw and cooked meagre with exception of grilled fish. For EPA and DHA, bioaccessibility percentages were low never surpassing the 50% in raw, boiled, and grilled meagre. The bioaccessibility percentage of Se was equal or higher than 82% (grilling treatment). Likewise, for Hg and MeHg, high bioaccessibility values were determined with exception of grilled meagre, displaying lower values of 54% and 64%, respectively. The risk-benefit probabilistic assessment brought about a recommendation of a maximum consumption of two weekly meals for boiled or roasted meagre and three weekly meals for grilled meagre.


PubMed | University of Porto and National Health Institute Doutor Ricardo Jorge INSA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

A series of duplication events led to an expansion of clade B Serine Protease Inhibitors (SERPIN), currently displaying a large repertoire of functions in vertebrates. Accordingly, the recent duplicates SERPINB3 and B4 located in human 18q21.3 SERPIN cluster control the activity of different cysteine and serine proteases, respectively. Here, we aim to assess SERPINB3 and B4 coevolution with their target proteases in order to understand the evolutionary forces shaping the accelerated divergence of these duplicates. Phylogenetic analysis of primate sequences placed the duplication event in a Hominoidae ancestor (30 Mya) and the emergence of SERPINB3 in Homininae (9 Mya). We detected evidence of strong positive selection throughout SERPINB4/B3 primate tree and target proteases, cathepsin L2 (CTSL2) and G (CTSG) and chymase (CMA1). Specifically, in the Homininae clade a perfect match was observed between the adaptive evolution of SERPINB3 and cathepsin S (CTSS) and most of sites under positive selection were located at the inhibitor/protease interface. Altogether our results seem to favour a coevolution hypothesis for SERPINB3, CTSS and CTSL2 and for SERPINB4 and CTSG and CMA1. A scenario of an accelerated evolution driven by host-pathogen interactions is also possible since SERPINB3/B4 are potent inhibitors of exogenous proteases, released by infectious agents. Finally, similar patterns of expression and the sharing of many regulatory motifs suggest neofunctionalization as the best fitted model of the functional divergence of SERPINB3 and B4 duplicates.

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